Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/355

Click to flip

355 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Channel factor
situational circumstances that appear unimportant on the surface but that can have great consequences for behavior
Dispositions
Internal factors, such as beliefs, values, personality traits, or abilities, that guide a person's behavior
Fundamental attribution error
The failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behavior, together with the tendency to overemphasize the importance of dispositions or traits on behavior
Construal
Interpretation and inference about the stimuli or situation we confront
Gestalt psychology
Approach that stresses the fact that objects are perceived not by means of some automatic registering device but by active, usually unconscious, interpretation of what the object represents as a whole
Schema
Generalized knowledge about the physical and social world and how to behave in particular situations and with different kinds of people
Stereotypes
Schemas that we have for people of various kinds that can be applied to judgments about people
Parental investment
Evolutionary principle that costs and benefits are associated with reproduction/nurturing of offspring. Because these costs and benefits are different for males and females, one sex will normally value and invest more in each child than will the other sex
Hindsight bias
People's tendency to be overconfident about whether they could have predicted a given outcome
Longitudal study
A study conducted over a long period of time with the same population, which is periodically assessed regarding a particular behavior
Self-selection
A problem that arises when the participant, rather than the investigator, selects his or her level on each variable, bringing with this value unknown other properties that make causal interpretation difficult
External validity
An experimental setup that closely resembles real-life situations so that results can safely be generalized to such situations
Field experiment
An experiment set up in the real world, usually with participants who are not aware that they are in a study of any kind
Internal validity
Confidence that the manipulated variable only that could have produced the results of an experiment
Attitude
An evaluation of an object in a positive or negative fashion that includes the three elements of affect, cognitions, and behavior
Likert scale
A numerical scale used to assess people's attitudes that includes a set of possible answers and that has anchors on each extreme
Response latency
The time it takes an individual to respond to a stimulus such as an attitude question
Utilitarian function
An attitudinal function that serves to alert us to rewarding objects and situations we should approach and costly or punishing objects or situations we should avoid
Ego-defense function
An attitudinal function that enables us to maintain cherished beliefs about ourselves by protecting us from awareness of our negative attributes and impulses or from facts that contradict our cherished beliefs or desires
Terror management theory
A theory that to ward off the anxiety we feel when contemplating our own demise, we cling to cultural worldviews and strongly held values out of a belief that by doing so part of us will survive death
Value-expressive function
An attitudinal function whereby attitudes help us express our most cherished values - usually in groups in which they can be supported and reinforced
Reference groups
Groups whose opinions matter to us and that affect our opinions and beliefs
Knowledge function
An attitudinal function whereby attitudes help organize our understanding of the world, guiding how we attend to, store, and retrieve information
Heuristic-systematic model
A model of persuasion that maintains that there are two different routes of persuasion: systematic and heuristic routes
Elaboration likelihood model
A model of persuasion that maintains there are two different routes of persuasion: the central and peripheral route
Central/Systematic route
A persuasive route wherein people think carefully and deliberately about the content of a message, attending to its logic, cogency, and arguments
Peripheral/Heuristic route
A persuasive route wherein people attend to relatively simple, superficial cues related to the message, such as the length of the message or the expertise or attractiveness of the communicator
Source characteristic
Characteristics of the person who delivers the message
Sleeper effect
An effect that occurs when messages from unreliable sources initially exert little influence but later cause individuals' attitudes to shift
Message characteristics
Aspects of the message itself, including the quality of the evidence and the explicitness of its conclusions
Identifiable victim effect
The tendency to be more moved by the plight of a single, vivid individual than by a more abstract aggregate of individuals
Receiver characteristics
Characteristics of the person who receives the message, including age, mood, personality, and motivation to attend to the message
Third-person effect
The assumption by most people that "other people" are more prone to being influenced by persuasive messages than they themselves are
Agenda control
Efforts of the media to select certain events and topics to emphasize, thereby shaping which issues and events we think are important
Thought polarization hypothesis
The hypothesis that more extended thought about a particular issue tends to produce more extreme, entrenched attitudes
Attitude inoculation
Small attacks on our beliefs that engage our attitudes, prior commitments and knowledge structures, enabling us to counteract a subsequent larger attack and be resistant to persuasion
Balance theory
People try to maintain balance among their beliefs, cognitions, and sentiments
Cognitive dissonance theory
Inconsistencies between a person's thoughts, sentiments, and actions create an aversive emotional state that leads to efforts to restore consistency
Effort justification
Tendency to reduce dissonance by finding reasons for why we have devoted time, effort, or money to something that has turned out to be unpleasant or disappointing
Induced compliance
Subtly compelling individuals to behave in a manner that is inconsistent with their beliefs, attitudes or values
Self-affirmation
Bolstering our identity and self-esteem by taking note of important elements of our identity, such as our important values
Self-perception theory
People come to know their own attitudes by looking at their behavior and the context in which it occurred and inferring what their attitudes must be
Interpersonal simulations
Experiments in which "observer-participants" are given a detailed description of one condition of a dissonance experiment, are told how a participant behaved in that situation, and is asked to predict the attitude of that participant
System justification theory
People are motivated to see the existing political and social status quo as desirable, fair, and legitimate
Terror management theory
People deal with the potentially paralyzing anxiety that comes with the knowledge of the inevitability of death by striving for symbolic immortality through the preservation of a valued worldview and the conviction that one has lived up to its values and prescriptions
Emotions
Brief, specific psychological and physiological responses that help humans meet social goals
Appraisal processes
The ways we evaluate events and objects in our environment according to their relation to our current goals
Primary appraisal stage
An initial, automatic positive or negative evaluation of ongoing events based on whether they are congruent or incongruent with our goals
Secondary appraisal stage
A subsequent evaluation in which we determine why we feel the way we do about an event, possible ways of responding to the event, and future consequences of different courses of action
Core-relational themes
Distinct themes, such as danger or offense of fairness, that define the essential meaning for each emotion
Principle of serviceable habits
Charles Darwin's thesis that emotional expressions are remnants of full-blown behaviors that helped our primate and mammalian predecessors meet important goals in the past
Free=response critique
A critique of Ekman and Friesen's emotion studies (facial expressions) based on the fact that researchers provided the terms with which participants labeled facial expressions rather than allowing the participants to label the expressions with their own words
Emotion accents
Culturally specific ways that individuals from different cultures express particular emotions, such as the tongue bite as an expression of embarrassment in India
Focal emotions
Emotions that are especially common within a particular culture
Hypercognize
To represent a particular emotion with numerous words and concepts
Display rules
Culturally specific rules that govern how and when and to whom we express emotion
Oxytocin
Hormone that promotes trust and devotion
Infrahumanization
The tendency to attribute animal-like qualities to outgroup members and to be reluctant to attribute more complex emotions, such as pride or compassion, to out-group members
Feelings-as-information perspective
Since many judgments are too complex for us to thoroughly review all the relevant evidence, we rely on our emotions to provide us with rapid, reliable information about events and conditions within our social environments
Processing style perspective
Different emotions lead people to reason in different ways
Processing style perspective
Different emotions lead people to reason in different ways. Positive moods facilitate preexisting heuristics and steroetypes, whereas negative moods facilitate more careful attention to situational details
Broaden-and-build hypothesis
Positive emotions broaden thought and action repertoires, helping us build social resources
Two factor theory of emotion
There are two components to emotional experience: undifferentiated physiological arousal and a person's construal of that state of undifferentiated arousal
Misattribution of arousal
Attributing arousal produced by one cause to another stimulus in the environment
Directed facial action task
Moving emotion-specific facial muscles triggers autonomic responses
Duration neglect
The relative unimportance of the length of an emotional experience in judging the overall experience
Affective forecasting
Predicting future emotions; we're bad at it
Immune neglect
The tendency to underestimate our capacity to be resilient in responding to difficult life events, which leads us to overestimate the extent to which life's difficulties will reduce our personal well being
Focalism
Tendency to focus too much on a central aspect of an event while neglecting to consider the impact of ancillary aspects of the event or the impact of other events
Propinquity
Physical proximity
Sociometric survey
Survey that attempts to measure the interpersonal relationships in a group of people
Functional distance
An architectural layout's tendency to encourage or inhibit certain activities, like contact between people
Counterbalancing
A methodological procedure used to ensure that any extraneous variable that might influence the dependent measure is distributed equally across experimental conditions
Mere exposure effect
Repeated exposure leads to greater liking of the stimulus
Complementarity
The tendency for people to seek out others with characteristics that are different from and that complement their own
The halo effect
The common belief that attractive individuals possess a host of positive qualities beyond their physical appearance
Self-fulfilling prophecy
The tendency for people to act in ways that bring about the very thing they expect to happen
Reproductive fitness
The capacity to get one's genes passed on to subsequent generations
Intrasex competition
Direct competition between two or more individuals of the same sex
Intersex attraction
The interest in and attract toward a member of the opposite sex
Social exchange theory
A theory based on the fact that there are costs and rewards in all relationships and that how people feel about a relationship depends on their assessments of its costs and rewards available to them in other relationships
Equity theory
People are motivated to pursue fairness, or equity in their relationships, with rewards and costs shared roughly equally among individuals
Attachment theory
How early attachments with our parents shape our relationships for the remainder of our lives
Working model of relationships
A conceptual model of relationships with our current partners as derived from our childhood experience with how available and warm our parents were
Secure attachment
Attachment style characterized by feelings of security in relationships. Individuals with this style are comfortable with intimacy and want to be close to others during times of threat and uncertainty
Avoidant attachment
An attachment style characterized by feelings of insecurity in relationships. Individuals with this style exhibit compulsive self-reliance, prefer distance from others, and are dismissive and detached during times of threat and uncertainty
Anxious attachment
An attachment style characterized by feelings of insecurity in relationships. Individuals with this style compulsively seek closeness, express continual worries about relationships, and excessively try to get closer to others during times of threat and uncertainty
Relational self theory
How prior relationships shape our current beliefs, feelings, and interactions vis-a-vis people who remind us of significant others from our past
Relational self
The beliefs, feelings, and expectations that we have about ourselves that derive from our relationships with significant others in our lives
Communal relationships
Relationships in which individuals feel a special responsibility for one another and give and receive according to the principle of need; often long term
Exchange relationships
Relationships in which the individuals feel little responsibility toward one another and in which giving and receiving are governed by concerns about equity and reciprocity; often short term
Power
The ability to control our own outcomes and those of others; the freedom to act
Status
The outcome of an evaluation of attributes that produces differences in respect and prominence, which in part determines an individual's power within a group
Authority
Power that derives from institutionalized roles of arrangements
Dominance
Behavior that has the acquisition or demonstration of power as its goal
Approach/inhibition theory
Higher-power individuals are inclined to go after their goals and make quick judgments, whereas low-power individuals are more likely to constrain their behavior and attend to others carefully
Social dominance orientation
The desire to see one's own group dominate other groups
Triangular theory of love
There are three major components of love: passion, intimacy, and commitment - which can be combined in different ways
Investment model of interpersonal relationships
Three things make partners more committed to each other: rewards, few alternative partners, and investment in the relationship
Interaction dynamics approach
Study of behavior and conversations of couples that focus on negative and positive behaviors
Attribution theory
An umbrella term used to describe the set of theoretical accounts of how people assign causes to the events around them and the effects that people's causal assessments have
Explanatory style
A person's habitual way of explaining events, typically assessed along three dimensions: internal/external; stable/unstable; and global/specific
Covariation principle
The idea that we should attribute behavior to potential causes that co-occur with the behavior
Consensus
Whether most people would behave the same way or few or no other people would behave that way
Distinctiveness
What an individual does in different situations; whether behavior is unique to a particular situation or occurs in all situations
Consistency
What an individual does in a given situation on different occasions; whether next time under the same circumstances, the person would behave the same or differently
Discounting principle
Idea that we should assign reduced weight to a particular cause of behavior if there are other plausible causes that might have produced it
Augmentation principle
We should assign greater weight to a particular cause of behavior if there are other causes present that normally would produce the opposite outcome
Counterfactual thoughts
Thoughts of what might have, could have, or should have happened
Emotional amplification
A ratcheting up of an emotional reaction to an event that is proportional to how easy it is to imagine the event not happening
Social exchange theory
A theory based on the fact that there are costs and rewards in all relationships and that how people feel about a relationship depends on their assessments of its costs and rewards available to them in other relationships
Equity theory
People are motivated to pursue fairness, or equity, in their relationships, with rewards and costs shared roughly equally among individuals
Attachment theory
How early attachments with our parents shape our relationships for the remainder of our lives
Working model relationships
A conceptual model of relationships with our current partners is derived from our childhood experience with how available and warm our parents were
Secure attachment
An attachment style characterized by feelings of security in relationships. Individuals with this style are comfortable with intimacy and want to be close to other during times of threat and uncertainty
Avoidant attachment
An attachment style characterized by feelings of insecurity in relationships. Individuals with this style exhibit compulsive self-reliance, prefer distance from others, and are dismissive and detached during times of threat and uncertainty
Anxious attachment
At attachment style characterized by feelings of insecurity in relationships. Individuals with this style compulsively seek closeness, express continual worries about relationships, and excessively try to get closer to others during times of threat and uncertainty
Relational self theory
How prior relationships shape our current beliefs, feelings, and interactions vis a vis people who remind us of significant others from our past
Relational self
The beliefs, feelings, and expectations that we have about ourselves that derive from our relationships with significant others in our lives
Communal relationships
Relationships in which individuals feel a special responsibility for one another and give and receive according to need; often long term
Exchange relationships
Relationships in which the individuals feel little responsibility toward one another and in which giving and receiving are governed by concerns about equity and reciprocity; often short term
Power
The ability to control our own outcomes and those of others
Status
The outcome of an evaluation of attributes that produces differences in respect and prominence, which in part determines an individuals power within a group
Authority
Power that derives from institutionalized roles of arrangements
Dominance
Behavior that has the acquisition or demonstration of power as its goal
Approach/inhibition theory
Higher power individuals are inclined to go after their goals and make quick judgments, whereas low-power individuals are more likely to constrain their behavior and attend to others carefully
Social dominance orientation
The desire to see one's own group dominate other groups
Triangular theory of love
Three major components of love: passion, intimacy, and commitment; can be combined in different ways
Investment model of interpersonal relationships
Three things make partners more committed to each other: rewards, few alternative partners, and investment in the relationship
Interaction dynamics approach
Study of the behavior and conversations of couples, with focus on negative and positive behaviors
Consensus
Whether most people would behave the same way or few or no other people would behave the same way
Distinctiveness
What an individual does in different situations; whether behavior is unique to a particular situation or occurs in all situations
Consistency
What an individual does in a given situation on different occasions; whether next time under the same circumstances, the person would behave the same or differently
Discounting principle
We should assign reduced weight to a particular cause of behavior if there are other plausible causes that might have produced it
Augmentation principle
We should assign greater weight to a particular cause of behavior if there are other causes present that normally would produce the opposite outcome
Counterfactual thoughts
Thought of what might have, could have, or should have happened
Emotional amplification
A ratcheting up of an emotional reaction to an event that is proportional to how easy it is to imagine the event not happening
Self-serving bias
The tendency to attribute failure and other bad events to external circumstances, but to attribute success and other good news to oneself
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency to believe that a behavior is due to a person's disposition, even when there are situational forces present that are sufficient to explain the behavior
Just world hypothesis
The belief that people get what they deserve in life and deserve what they get
Actor-observer difference
Difference in attribution based on who is making the causal assessment: the actor or the observer
Traits
Consistent ways that people think, feel, and act across classes and situations
5 Factor model of personality
Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
Heritability
The degree to which traits or physical characteristics are determined by genes and hence inherited from parents
Diversification (development)
Principle that maintains that siblings develop into quite different people so that they can peacefully occupy different niches within the family environment
Distinctiveness hypothesis
We identify with what makes us unique in each particular context, and we highlight that in our self-definition
Social comparison theory
We compare ourselves to other people in order to evaluate our opinions, abilities, and internal states
Personal beliefs
Beliefs about our own personality traits, abilities, attributes, preferences, tastes, and talents
Social self-beliefs
Beliefs about the roles, duties, and obligations we assume in groups
Relational self-beliefs
Beliefs about our identities in specific relationships
Relational self-beliefs
Beliefs about our identities in specific relationships
Collective self-beliefs
Our identity and beliefs as they relate to the social categories to which we belong
Self-reference effect
The tendency to elaborate on and recall information that is integrated into our self-knowledge
Self-schemas
Knowledge-based summaries of our feelings and actions and how we understand others' views about the self
Self-image bias
The tendency to judge other people's personalities according to their similarity or dissimilarity to our own personality
Possible selves
Hypothetical selves we aspire to be in the future
Self-discrepancy theory
Appropriate behavior is motivated by cultural and moral standards regarding the ideal self and the ought self. Violations of those standards produce emotions like guilt and shame
Actual self
The self we truly believe ourselves to be
Ideal self
The self that embodies the wishes and aspirations we and other people maintain about us
Promotion focus
A sensitivity to positive outcomes, approach-related behavior, and cheerful emotions that result if we are living up to our ideals and aspirations
Ought self
The self that is concerned with the duties, obligations, and external demand we feel we are compelled to honor
Prevention focus
A sensitivity to negative outcomes often motivated by a desire to live up to our ought self and to avoid the guilt or anxiety that results when we fail to live up to our sense of what we ought to do
Prevention focus
A sensitivity to negative outcomes often motivated by a desire to live up to our ought self and to avoid the guilt/anxiety that results when we fail to live up to our sense of what we ought to do
Ego depletion
A state produced by acts of self-control, where we don't have the energy or resources to engage in further acts of self-control
Self-esteem
The positive or negative overall evaluation that we have of ourselves
Contingencies of self worth
An account of self-esteem maintaining that self-esteem is contingent on success and failures in domains on which a person has based his or her self worth
Self-complexity
The tendency to define the self in terms of many domains and attributes
Sociometer hypothesis
Hypothesis that self-esteem is an internal subjective index or marker of the extent to which we are included or looked on favorably by others
Self-evaluation maintenance model
A model that maintains that we are motivated to view ourselves in a favorable light and that we do so through two processes: reflection and social comparison
Self-verification theory
Holds that we strive for stable, accurate beliefs about the self because such beliefs give us a sense of coherence
Identity cues
Customary facial expressions, posture, gait, clothes, haircuts, and body decorations, which signal to other important facets of our identity and, by implication, how we are to be treated and construed by others
Self-presentation
Presenting who we would like others to believe we are
Impression management
Attempting to control the beliefs other people have about us
Face
Who we want others to think we are
Public self-consciousness
Our awareness of what other people think about us - public identity
Private self-consciousness
Our awareness of our interior lives
Self-monitoring
The tendency for people to monitor behavior in such a way that it fits the demands of the current situation
Self-handicapping
The tendency to engage in self-defeating behaviors in order to prevent others from drawing unwanted attributions about the self as a result of poor performance
On-record communication
The statements we make that we intend to be taken literally
Off-record communication
Indirect and ambiguous communication that allows us to hint at ideas and meanings that are not explicit in the words we utter
Social influence
The myriad ways that people impact one another, including changes in attitudes, beliefs, feelings, and behavior, that result from the comments, actions, or even the mere presence of others
Conformity
Changing one's behavior or beliefs in response to explicit or implicit pressure (real or imagined) from others
Compliance
Responding favorably to an explicit request by another person
Obedience
In an unequal power relationship, submitting to the demands of the more powerful person
Ideomotor action
Merely thinking about a behavior makes its actual performance more likely
Autokinetic illusion
The apparent motion of a stationary point of light in a completely darkened environment
Informational social influence
The influence of other people that results from taking their comments or actions as a source of information about what is correct, proper, or effective
Normative social influence
The influence of other people that comes from the desire to avoid their disapproval, harsh judgments, and other social sanctions
Internalization
Private acceptance of a proposition, orientation, or ideology
Public compliance
Agreeing with someone or advancing a position in public, even if we continue to believe something else in private
Norm of reciprocity
A norm dictating that people should provide benefits of those who benefits them
Reciprocal concessions technique (door-in-the-face)
Asking someone for a very large favor that he or she will certainly refuse and then following that request with one for a more modest favor, which tends to be seen as a concession that the target will feel compelled to honor
That's not all technique
Adding something to an original offer, which is likely to create some pressure to reciprocate
Foot-in-the-door technique
A compliance technique in which one makes an initial small request to which nearly everyone complies, followed by a larger request involving the real behavior of interest
Negative state relief hypothesis
People engage in certain actions, such as agreeing to a request, in order to relieve negative feelings and to feel better about themselves
Reactance theory
People reassert their prerogatives in response to the unpleasant state of arousal they experience when they believe their freedoms are threatened
Hostile aggression
Behavior intended to harm another, either physically or psychologically, and motivated by feelings of anger and hostility
Instrumental aggression
Behavior intended to harm another in the service of motives other than pure hostility (attract attention, acquire wealth, etc)
Frustration
The internal state that accompanies the thwarting of an attempt to achieve a goal; causes individuals to act aggressively
Learned helplessness
Passive and depressed responses that individuals show when their goals are blocked and they feel that they have no control over their outcomes
Associationistic account
Adverse event => Anger => Aggression
Culture of honor
A culture that is defined by its members' strong concerns about their own and others' reputations, leading to sensitivity to slights and insults and a willingness to use violence to avenge any perceived wrong or insult
Rape-prone cultures
Cultures in which rape tends to be used as an act of war against enemy women, as a ritual act, and as a threat against women so that they will remain subservient to men
Inclusive fitness
The evolutionary tendency to look out for ourselves, our offspring, and our close relatives together with their offspring so that our genes will survive
Altruism
Unselfish behavior that benefits others without regard to consequences for the self
Social rewards
Benefits like praise, positive attention, tangible rewards, honors, and gratitude that may be gained from helping others
Experienced distress
A motive for helping those in distress that may arise from a need to reduce our own distress
Empathic concern
Identifying with another person accompanied by the intention to help the person in need
Bystander intervention
Helping a victim of an emergency by those who have observed what is happening. Generally reduce as the number of observers increases
Diffusion of responsibility
A reduction of a sense of urgency to help someone involved in an emergency or dangerous situation under the assumption that others who are also observing the situation will help
Kin selection
The tendency for natural selection to favor behaviors that increase the chances of survival for genetic relatives
Reciprocal altruism
The tendency to help others with the expectation that they are likely to help us in return at some future time
Stereotypes
Beliefs that certain attributes are characteristic of members of particular groups
Prejudice
A negative attitude or affective response toward a certain group and it's individual members
Discrimination
Unfair treatment of members of a particular group based on their membership in that group
Modern racism
Symbolic racism; prejudice directed at other racial groups that exists alongside rejection of explicitly racist beliefs
Implicit Association Test (IAT)
Technique for revealing nonconscious prejudices toward particular groups
Realistic group conflict theory
A theory that group conflict, prejudice, and discrimination are likely to arise over competition between groups for limited resources
Ethnocentrism
Glorifying one's own group while vilifying other groups
Superordinate goals
Goals that transcend the interests of one individual group and that can be achieved more readily by two or more groups working together
Minimal group paradigm
An experimental paradigm in which researchers create groups based on arbitrary and seemingly meaningless criteria and then examine how the members of these "minimal groups" are inclined to behave toward one another
Social identity theory
A theory that a person's self-concept and self-esteem not only derive from personal identity and accomplishments, but from the status and accomplishments of the various groups to which the person belongs
Basking in reflected glory
The tendency to take pride in the accomplishments of those with whom we are in some way associated, as fans identify with a winning team
Frustration-aggression theory
The aptly-named theory that frustration leads to aggression
Outgroup homogeneity effect
The tendency to assume that within-group similarity is much stronger for outgroups than for ingroups
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Acting in a way that tends to produce the very behavior we expected in the first place
Illusory correlation
An erroneous belief about a connection between events, characteristics, or categories that are not in fact related
Paired distinctiveness
The pairing of two distinctive events that stand out even more because they co-occur
Subtyping
Explaining away exceptions to a given stereotype by creating a subcategory of the stereotyped group that can be expected to differ from the group as a whole
Stereotype threat
The fear that we will confirm the stereotypes that others have regarding some salient group of which we are a member
Social facilitation
The effect of the presence of others on performance
Dominant response
In a hierarchy of responses, the response you are most likely to make
Evaluation apprehension
A concern about how we appear in the eyes of others
Distraction-conflict theory
A theory based on the idea that being aware of another person's presence creates a conflict between attending to that person and attending to the task at hand and that it is this attentional conflict that is arousing and that produces social facilitation effects
Social loafing
The tendency to exert less effort when working on a group task in which individual contributions cannot be monitored
Emergent properties of groups
Those behaviors that only surface when people are in groups
Deindividuation
The reduced sense of individual identity accompanied by diminished self-regulation that comes over people when they are in a large group
Individuation
An enhanced sense of individual identity produced by focused attention on the self, which generally leads people to act carefully and deliberately and in accordance with their sense of propriety and values
Self-awareness theory
A theory that maintains that when people focus their attention inward on themselves, they become concerned with self-evaluation and how their current behavior conforms to their internal standards and values
Spotlight effect
People's conviction that other people are attending to them more than is actually the case
Groupthink
A kind of faulty thinking on the part of highly cohesive groups in which the critical scrutiny that should be devoted to the issues at hand is subverted by the social pressure to reach a consensus
Self-censorship
The tendency to withhold information or opinions in group discussions
Risky shift
The tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than individuals would
Group polarization
The tendency for group decisions to be more extreme than those made by individuals. What ever way the individuals are leaning, group discussion tends to make them lean further in that direction
Social comparison theory
A theory that maintains that when there isn't an objective standard of evaluation or comprehension, people evaluate their opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others
Pluralistic ignorance
Misperception of a group norm that results from observing people who are acting at variance with their private beliefs out of a concern for the social consequences
Flashbulb memories
Vivid recollections of the moment one learned some dramatic, emotionally charged news
Sharpening
Emphasizing important or more interesting elements in telling a story to someone else
Leveling
Eliminating or deemphasizing seemingly less important details when telling a story to someone else
Primacy effect
The disproportionate influence on judgment of information presented first in a body of evidence
Recency effect
The disproportionate influence on judgment of information presented last in a body of evidence
Framing effect
The influence on judgment resulting from the way information is presented
Confirmation bias
The tendency to test a proposition by searching for evidence that would support it
Bottom-up Processes
Data driven mental processing, in which one takes in and forms conclusions on the basis of the stimuli encountered in one's experience
Top-down processes
Theory driven mental processing, in which one filters and interprets new information in light of preexisting knowledge and expectations
Knowledge structures
Coherent configurations in which related information is stored together
Heuristics
Intuitive mental operations that allow us to make a variety of judgments quickly and efficiently
Availability heuristic
The process whereby judgments of frequency or probability are based on the ease with which pertinent instances are brought to mind
Representativeness heuristic
The process whereby judgments of likelihood are based on assessments of similarity between individuals and group prototypes or between cause and effect
Fluency
The feeling of ease associated with processing information
Base rate information
Information about the relative frequency of events or of members of different categories in the population
Planning fallacy
The tendency for people to be unrealistically optimistic about how quickly they can complete a project
Illusory correlation
The belief that two variables are correlated when in fact they are not
Allport's definition of social psychology
An attempt to understand and explain how the thought, feeling, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
Asch Study - lines
Subjects shown a number of lines of different lengths, asked to point out which is the shortest. One subject would be surrounded by confederates who all gave the same wrong answer. The subject often gave the same wrong answer, despite the obvious correct one. This effect changed dramatically if there was one dissenter
Kassin & Kiechel false confession study
Participant was falsely accused of ruining experiment by pressing a certain key. If they were typing fast and there was a witness present, they signed a false confession, and even came up with false stories that they believed were true.
Automaticity of behavior - word scramble
Participants would walk slower if they were primed with words about elderly people; would interrupt more frequently if primed with rude words
Automaticity of behavior - prime
People did better on a test if they thought about professors and worse if they thought about hooligans
Automaticity - darts
People are worse at darts when throwing at attractive people than when they throw at Osama bin Laden
Absence of insight - rope
People told to tie two ropes together, couldn't do it without swinging it. Experimenter swung a rope around on the side. When he did, people would realize they had to swing the ropes, but did not identify the experimenter's action as the cause of their insight
Absence of insight - life decisions
People are more likely to live somewhere if their name kinda sounds like the place where they live; more likely to work in a career if it kinda sounds like their name
Within-subject experiment
Control observation => manipulation => experimental observation

Threats: observation 1 can sensitize subject to manipulation/observation 2; artifact between observations
Between-subject experiment
Two groups of subjects, randomly divided into control group and experimental group.

Threats: Randomization may fail; artifacts can happen
Experimenter artifacts
Fraud (intentional)
Expectancy effects (unintentional)
Participant artifacts
Volunteer bias - subjects volunteer to be studied
Evaluation apprehension
Sensitivity to experimental demand: worst when hypothesis is explicit, manipulation is obvious, and observations are obvious
Subject motives
Good subject: + hypothesis
Faithful subject: + truth
Apprehensive subject: + looking good
Negativistic subject: - hypothesis
Effects of briefing/debriefing
False feedback has same effects even after debriefing and briefing
Attitudes are heritable
-Genes regulating dopamine affect financial risk taking and tendency to exploit vs. explore
-Low activity MAOA leads to more aggressive people
-Oxytocin gene makes people more empathetic
-Vasopressin gene makes men more bonded to romantic partners, and more likely to be married with higher marital happiness
Mere exposure effect evidence
-Black bag in class at Oregon St.
-Mirror image preferences
-Turkish words in newspapers
Priming and attitudes towards people
Pictures of people primed with negative image were viewed as bad, visa versa
Embodiment and attitudes
-People like things more if they are flexing (bringing something closer to them) more, worse if they are pushing them away
-People holding a warm cup of coffee are more likely to evaluate another person as generous/caring
Cognitive dissonance - evidence
False prophecy of alien destruction; beliefs in horse's chances of winning pre/post bet

Belief is enhanced in response to contradictory evidence when...
The belief is held with deep conviction; person has acted publicly on belief; belief is vulnerable to disproof; undeniable disproof occurs; individual believer has social support
Induced compliance
People that were payed less to do a boring task said they liked it more than people who were paid a lot
Effort justification
-Rats that had been partially reinforced to go up a ramp to get a reward continued to make the journey during extinction more than rats who were always reinforced. Theory is that they found some internal joy in walking up the ramp - it's not all about the cheese.
-People like the people that they do favors for because they have done them a favor
-People like group with severe initiation more
Effects of choice on preferences
-Subjects rank 7 items, given a choice between two middle ones. They like whichever one they get more than the one they did not, regardless of whether or not they chose it.
-Photography students who had no decision about which photo they kept liked it more than those who did have choice
Self-Relevance
Participants who expected to suffer (eat a worm) chose to do so if they had very high or very low self-esteem
Self-perception theory
To the extent that internal cues are weak, individuals determine their thoughts/attitudes from their actions
Dissonance vs. Self-Perception
Dissonance: Attitude change occurs to reduce tension from the conflict between prior attitude and chosen behavior.
Self-perception: We infer our attitudes from our behavior
Changing intrinsic motivation
Controlling aspect of reward decreases intrinsic motivation
Competence-signaling aspect of reward increases intrinsic motivation
Priority principle
A person will experience consciously willing an action if a thought of the action precedes the action at an appropriate interval, even if the action was not caused by the thought
Priority principle - evidence
- I-spy experiment: intention increased as seconds between thought and act decreased
-Sensation of having a rubber hand when it is positioned over one's own hand and brushed simultaneously
Self-illumination and split-brain studies
-People choose matching pictures to visual stimulants, but create stories for why they picked the one they can't explain
-People squeeze corresponding hand when one side is given subliminal message about money
6 Universal emotions
Anger, happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust
Getting rid of the endowment effect
Disgust eliminates the endowment effect
Sadness reverses the endowment effect
Emotions affecting perception
-Judges less likely to give parole if they are hungry
-Estimate room is colder, prefer warmer foods
Functions of expression
Contagion, interaction, genuine communication, deceptive communication
Viscera theory of emotion (James-Lange theory)
Stimulus ==> expression ==> emotional experience
Central theory (Cannon theory)
Stimulus ==> emotional experience ==> expression
Cognitive labeling
Stimulus ==> sympathetic arousal ==> epistemic search ==> situational label ==> emotion
Cognitive labeling evidence
-Participants given shot of epinephrine, then given intrusive questionnaire; confederate was either angry or euphoric, and subject mimicked the confederate. No effect when told that the shot was arousing
-Subjects confused arousal from being on a really tall bridge to being aroused by woman talking to them on a bridge
Traits people care about in mates
Smarts, health, status, pro-sociality
Ideal body weight
-Varies by culture
-Men prefer heavier women if they are concerned about resources
What is attractive in faces?
Symmetry, averageness.
Average of hot is hotter than average because of exaggerated sex-specific features
Attraction and menstrual cycle
-Women more attracted to feminine faces when not ovulating, visa versa
-Women more attracted to scents of men with symmetrical faces when ovulating
-Women avoid talking to father when ovulating
-Women dress in more skimpy outfits when ovulating
-Men more attracted to women when they are ovulating
What is the importance of the Major Histocompatibility Complex in mate selection?
Women prefer romantic partners with different MHC genes - more sexually responsive, less likely to cheat, less attracted to other men during ovulation
Physical stereotypes
-Physically attractive: sensitive, strong, kind, interesting... etc. But bad parent, less intelligent
-Greater success ==> taller (men)
-People associated with obese people are negatively stereotyped
-Attractive children are not punished as much for severe transgressions
Vasopressin Gene and Couples
Men with some version of gene for vasopressin have more bonding with their partner, fewer marital problems, more likely to get married, and more likely to make partners happy in their relationship
Gottman's 4 Horsemen
Criticism
Defensiveness
Stonewalling
CONTEMPT
Cognitive interdependence
Real/assigned couples memorize items, either assigned for categories or not.
Real couples did better without assignment
Objects vs. agents
Objects - causal past
Agents - goal-oriented future
Babies and rationality
-9 and 12 month olds infer intentions (ball jumping a block)
-14 month olds infer rationality (turning on light with head)
Agency detection in the brain
Amygdala key - Patient SM and triangle video
Double dissociation
-Used to separate two separate processes, for example, emotion recognition and personality attribution
Capgras delusion
Patients believe that others have been replaced by impostors. Recognize people visually, but not emotionally
Prosopagnosia
Patients recognize people emotionally, but not visually
Williams syndrome
Mirror image of autism
Mild-moderate intellectual impairment
Hypersociability
Self-recognition and sociability
Chimps reared in social isolation don't recognize self in mirror
Subjective self awareness
Attention from self as subject - "I"
Objective self awareness
-Attention to self as object - "me"
-Created by mirrors, cameras, audiences, etc.
-Increases salience of discrepancy between real self and ideal self
Effects of mirrors on self perception
-More blame put on self
-More unbiased
Effect of arousal on self perception
People become more self-focused
Effects of someone watching on self perception
-More generous if eyes/God watching
-Experiments done with Pope/Zajonc primes
-After putting on bathing suit, women were more shamed, interested in dieting, and did worse at math
-Fall into racial stereotypes
The Chameleon Effect
People mimic each other unconsciously
Environment influences behavior
-People who voted in a school were more likely to support education initiative
Effects of hypnosis
Experience of involuntariness
Pain control: reduction of conscious sensation of pain
Mental control
Memory retrieval reduction
Wart control
Reduces Stroop effect
Handicapping
A trait that signals good genes, even if the trait itself has no survival value: Peacocks
In equilibrium when the mating advantage is outweighted by the survival disadvantage
Structural powerlessness hypothesis
Women in all cultures are denied access to power and resources. One way to get them is by marrying a man with resources.
Monogamy
Deal between men to keep less-fit men from going apeshit
Evidence for kin selection
-Ant sisters are "supersisters", sharing 75% of their genes; facilitates kin-based cooperation
-Violence against children extremely less frequent if adult is related to them
Cheater detection
Adapted for social situations and precautionary situations
Social brain hypothesis
-Need more brain to manage complex social relationships
-Supported by evidence in animal brain sizes
Dunbar's number
Expect that humans are able to maintain stable relationships with about 150 people
Group selection
Genes can spread because of successful between-group competition; cooperators can out-compete individuals
Evidence for expectancy effects
Children randomly designated as bloomers did better than those not labeled
Facilitated communication
No evidence to support it - all the interpreter trying to make it work
Evolution of morality - animals
-Morality as the answer to the problem of cooperation
-Observed in monkeys: embracing distressed individuals, saving drowning infants, will go without food to avoid shocking another monkey (especially if they have been shocked), reward neighbors, help retrieve out-of-reach object, demonstrate tit-for-tat strategy with food
Morality and development - babies
< 1 year old infants will play with helpful shape and will never play with hindering shape; doesn't work without googley eyes
Morality and development - children
-Guilt-prone children exhibit fewer behavior problems independent of their self-control abilities
-Less guilty-prone children, higher self control predicted fewer behavioral problems
Neuropsychology of honesty
-Predict outcomes of coin flips either with opportunity to lie or not; lying revealed by high levels of accuracy
-For honest subjects, no detectable difference in neural activity when they chose to admit losing compared to when they lost and had no choice
-Different activity for lying
Just world hypothesis
-Belief that people get what they deserve, and deserve what they get
-Confederate takes a memory test, gets shocked; people find her less attractive, intelligent, etc.
-No effect if participants can rescue her or compensate her suffering
Consequences of just world belief
-Victim blaming
-Overvaluation of lucky: children like children that had good, uncontrollable events happen to them more than children who had bad uncontrollable events happen to them
-Stronger effect for intended actions
Consequences of death prime (vis. terror management theory)
-Harsh judgments of transgressions/harsher punishments
-Prejudice against outgroups
-More positive attitude towards charity
Widening in-groups (vis. terror management theory)
-greater market integration ==> more fairness
-Larger community leads to more punishment of unfairness
-Membership in worldwide religion leads to more fairness
-People in different cities played repeated public goods games, large variance in contributions; expectations + prosocial vs. anti-social punishment were key
Kohlberg's stage theory and moral reasoning
1) Preconventional: selfish, avoiding punishment
2) Conventional: follow rules
3) Postconventional: Universal morality higher than law
VMPFC Damage and decision making
Patients stick with bad decks of cards that lose them money because they have no emotional signal otherwise
Emotion and morality
-Fart spray makes people more likely to disapprove of legalized marriage/sex between 1st cousins
-After recalling something bad they did, participants are more likely to volunteer unless they wash their hands first
-Sensitivity to disgust predicts political conservatism
Dual-Process theory of morality
-Efficiency vs. flexibility
-More cognitive areas active in lever-trolley scenario; more emotion/social cognition areas active when you have to push the guy
-Utilitarian vs. social cognition
-Utilitarian trolley ratings are predictive of medical decisionmaking
Racism still exists - evidence
-Identical resumes with white/black names
-Doctors are 40% less likely to order sophisticated heart tests for women and african americans who complain about chest pain vs. white males
-More stereotypically black-looking men more likely to be sentenced to death if they were found guilty of killing a white person
Minimal group paradigm - evidence
-Randomly divide people in two groups, transparently arbitrary; people favor their own group immediately
-Oxytocin increase ingroup cooperation in prisoner's dilemma
-High and low reporting prejudiced people see ambiguous behavior as hostile if primed with black stereotypes (shows that low prejudiced people consciously inhibit their prejudice)
Can racism change? - evolutionary evidence
Yes - race not an evolutionary significant factor. Evidence: argument between two teams of mixed race. People confuse who said what within teams rather than within race. Doesn't work for gender, which mattered evolutionarily
Crowd effects on individuals
-Uncovers base, unconscious desires
-Produces intellectual retardation
-Unveils destructiveness
-Exaggerates emotion
Mechanisms of crowd effects
-Anonymity
-Contagion
-Suggestibility
Wisdom of crowds: evidence
-Weight of an ox
-Lost USS Scorpion
-Who Wants to be a Millionaire
-Iowa Electronic Markets
How do urban legends travel?
Level of disgust within story: violation of body, death, ingestion of bad food, sex, contact with body substances, etc.
Why do people believe in crazy things that are totally wrong?
-Sticky ideas: disgust
-Coincidence and pattern seeking: MMR vaccine and autism
-Confirmation bias
-Accessibility