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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
memory
The capacity to preserve and recover information.
encoding
The processes that determine and control how memories are formed.
storage
The processes that determine and control how memories are stored and kept over time.
retrieval
The processes that determine and control how memories are recovered and translated into performance.
sensory memory
An exact replica of an environmental message, which usually lasts for a second or less.
short-term memory
A limited-capacity system that we use to hold information after it has been analyzed for periods lasting less than a minute or two.
iconic memory
The system that produces and stores visual sensory memories.
echoic memory
The system that produces and stores auditory sensory memories.
rehearsal
A strategic process that helps to maintain short-term memories indefinitely through the use of internal repetition.
memory span
The number of items that can be recalled from short-term memory in their proper presentation order on half of the tested memory trials.
chunking
A short-term memory strategy that involves rearranging incoming information into meaningful or familiar patterns.
long-term memory
The system used to maintain information for extended periods of time.
episodic memory
A memory for a particular event, or episode, that happened to you personally.
semantic memory
Knowledge about the world, stored as facts that make little or no reference to one's personal experiences.
procedural memory
Knowledge about how to do things, such as riding a bike.
elaboration
An encoding process that involves the formation of connections between to-be-remembered input and other information in memory.
distinctiveness
refers to how unique or different a memory record is from other things in memory. Distinctive memory records tend to be recalled well.
visual imagery
The processes used to construct an internal visual image.
distributed practice
Spacing the repetitions of to-be-remembered information over time.
primary effect
The better memory of items near the beginning of a memorized list.
recency effect
The better memory of items near the end of a memorized list.
mnemonic devices
Special mental tricks that help people think about material in ways that improve later memory. most mnemonic devices require the use of visual imagery.
method of loci
A mnemonic device in which you chose some pathway, such as moving through the rooms in your house, and then form visual images of the to-be-remembered items sitting in locations along the pathway.
peg-word method
A mnemonic device in which you form visual images connecting to-be-remembered items with retrieval cues, or pegs.
flashbulb memories
Rich memories records of the circumstances surrounding emotionally significant and surprising events.
free recall
A testing condition in which a person is asked to remember information without explicit retrieval cues.
cued recall
A testing condition in which people are given an explicit retrieval cue to help them remember.
transfer-appropriate processing
The idea that the likelihood of correct retrieval is increased if a person uses the same kind of mental processes during testing that he used during encoding.
schema
An organized knowledge structure in long-term memory.
implicit memory
Remembering that occurs in the absence of conscious awareness or willful intent.
explicit memory
Conscious, willful remembering.
forgetting
The loss of accessibility to previously stored material.
decay
The proposal that memories are forgotten or lost spontaneously with the passage of time.
retroactive interference
A process in which the formation of new memories hurts the recovery of old memories.
proactive interference
A process in which old memories interfere with the establishment and recovery of new memories.
repression
A defense mechanism that individuals use, unknowingly, to push threatening thoughts, memories, and feelings out of conscious awareness.
amnesia
Forgetting that is caused by physical problems in the brain, such as those induced by injury or disease.
retrograde amnesia
Memory loss for events that happened prior to the point of brain injury.
anterograde amnesia
Memory loss for events that happen after the point of physical injury.