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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychology
The science of mental processes and behavior.
Mental Processes
What the brain does when a person stores, recalls, or uses information or has specific feelings.
Behavior
The outwardly observable acts of an individual, alone or in a group.
Level of the Brain
Events that involve the structure and properties of the organ itself—brain cells and their connections, the chemical soup in which they exist, and the genes.
Level of the Person
Events that involve the nature of beliefs, desires, and feelings—the content of the mind, not just its internal mechanics.
Level of the Group
Events that involve relationships between people (such as love, competition, and cooperation), relationships among groups, and culture. Events at the level of the group are one aspect of the environment; the other aspect is the physical environment itself (the time, temperature, and other physical stimuli).
Structuralism
The school of psychology that sought to identify the basic elements of experience and to describe the rules and circumstances under which these elements combine to form mental structures.
Introspection
The process of “looking within.”
Functionalism
The school of psychology that sought to understand how the mind helps individuals function, or adapt to the world.
Gestalt Psychology
An approach to understanding mental processes that focuses on the idea that the whole is more than the sum of its parts.
Unconscious
Outside conscious awareness and not able to be brought to consciousness at will.
Psychodynamic Theory
A theory of how thoughts and feelings affect behavior; refers to the continual push-and-pull interaction among conscious and unconscious forces.
Behaviorism
The school of psychology that focuses on how a specific stimulus (object, person, or event) evokes a specific response (behavior in reaction to the stimulus).
Humanistic Psychology
The school of psychology that assumes people have positive values, free will, and deep inner creativity, the combination of which leads them to choose life-fulfilling paths to personal growth.
Cognitive Psychology
The approach in psychology that attempts to characterize how information is stored and operated on internally.
Cognitive Neuroscience
A blending of cognitive psychology and neuroscience (the study of the brain) that aims to specify how the brain stores and processes information.
Evolutionary Psychology
The approach in psychology that assumes that certain cognitive strategies and goals are so important that natural selection has built them into our brains.
Clinical Psychologist
The type of psychologist who provides psychotherapy and is trained to administer and interpret psychological tests.
Psychotherapy
The process of helping clients learn to change so they can cope with troublesome thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
Counseling Psychologist
The type of psychologist who is trained to help people with issues that naturally arise during the course of life.
Psychiatrist
A physician who focuses on mental disorders; unlike psychologists they can prescribe drugs, but they are not trained to administer and interpret psychological tests, nor are they trained to interpret and understand psychological research.
Social Worker
A mental health professional who uses psychotherapy to help families (and individuals) and teaches clients to use the social service systems in their communities.
Psychiatric Nurse
A nurse with a master’s degree and a clinical specialization in psychiatric nursing who provides psychotherapy and works with medical doctors to monitor and administer medications.
Academic Psychologist
The type of psychologist who focuses on teaching and conducting research.
Applied Psychologist
The type of psychologist who studies how to improve products and procedures and conducts research to help solve specific practical problems.
Scientific Method
The scientific method involves specifying a problem, systematically observing events, forming a hypothesis of the relation between variables, collecting new observations to test the hypothesis, using such evidence to formulate and support a theory, and finally testing the theory.
Data
Objective observations
Replication
Collecting the same observations or measurements and finding the same results as were found previously.
Variable
An aspect of a situation that can vary, or change; specifically, a characteristic of a substance, quantity, or entity that is measurable.
Hypothesis
A tentative idea that might explain a set of observations.
Operational Definition
A definition of a variable that specifies how it is measured or manipulated.
Theory
An interlocking set of concepts or principles that explain a set of observations.
Prediction
An expectation about specific events that should occur in particular circumstances if the theory or hypothesis is correct.
Case Study
A scientific study that focuses on a single instance of a situation, examining it in detail.
Survey
A set of questions, typically about beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or activities.
Correlation Coefficient (Or Correlation)
An index of how closely interrelated two sets of measured variables are, which ranges from -1.0 to +1.0. The higher the correlation (in either direction), the better we can predict the value of one type of measurement when given the value of the other.
Independent Variable
The aspect of the situation that is intentionally varied while another aspect is measured.
Dependent Variable
The aspect of the situation that is measured as an independent variable is changed; the value of the dependent variable depends on the independent variable.
Effect
The difference in the dependent variable that is due to the changes in the independent variable.
Confound (Or Confounding Variable)
An independent variable that varies along with the ones of interest, and could be the actual basis for what you are measuring.
Experimental Group
A group that receives the complete procedure that defines the experiment.
Control Group
A group that is treated exactly the same way as the experimental group, except that the one aspect of the situation being studied is not manipulated for this group. The control group holds constant—“controls”—all of the variables in the experimental group except the one of interest.
Random Assignment
The technique of assigning participants randomly, that is, by chance, to the experimental and the control groups, so that no biases can sneak into the composition of the groups.
Experimental Condition
experiment. Usually this is accompanied by a control condition, with the same participants receiving both experimental and control conditions.
Meta-Analysis
A statistical technique that allows researchers to combine results from different studies, which can determine whether there is a relationship among variables that transcends any one study.
Sample
A group that is drawn from a larger population and measured or observed.
Population
The entire set of relevant people or animals.
Reliability
Data are reliable if the same results are obtained when the measurements are repeated.
Validity
A measure is valid if it does in fact measure what it is supposed to measure.
Bias
When beliefs, expectations, or habits alter how participants in a study respond or affect how a researcher sets up or conducts a study, thereby influencing its outcome.
Response Bias
A tendency to respond in a particular way regardless of respondents’ actual knowledge or beliefs.
Sampling Bias
A bias that occurs when the participants or items are not chosen at random, but instead are chosen so that one attribute is over or underrepresented.
Experimenter Expectancy Effects
Effects that occur when an investigator’s expectations lead him or her (consciously or unconsciously) to treat participants in a way that encourages them to produce the expected results.
Double-Blind Design
The participant is “blind” to (unaware of) the predictions of the study (and so cannot consciously or unconsciously produce the predicted results), and the experimenter is “blind” to the condition assigned to the participant (and so experimenter expectancy effects cannot produce the predicted results).
Pseudopsychology
Theories or statements that at first glance look like psychology, but are in fact superstition or unsupported opinion pretending to be science.
Informed Consent
The requirement that a potential participant in a study be told what he or she will be asked to do and be advised of possible risks and benefits of the study before agreeing to take part.
Debriefing
An interview after a study to ensure that the participant has no negative reactions as a result of participation and understands why the study was conducted.