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28 Cards in this Set

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Cephalocaudal Principle
Growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds to the rest of the body. "head to tail"
Proximodistal Principle
Development proceeds from the center of the body outward.
Principle Hierarchical of Integration
Simple skills typically develop separately and independently. Later they are intergrated into more complex skills.
Principle of the Independence of Systems
Different body systems grow at different rates.
Neuron
The basic cell of the nervous system.
Synapse
The gap at the connection between neurons, through which neurons chemically communicate with one another.
Dendrites
from Greek dendron, “tree”) are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Neurotransmitters
chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate signals between a neuron and another cell.
Myelin
A fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impluse.
Cerebral cortex
The upper layer of the brain.
Plasticity
The degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience.
Sensitive period
A specific, but limited, time, usually early in organism's life during which the organism is particularly susceptible to environmental influences relating to some particular facet of development.
Rhythms
Repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior.
State
The degree of awareness that an infant displays to both internal and external stimulation.
REM
The period of sleep that is found in older children and adults and is associated with dreaming.
SID
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome The unexplained death while sleeping of a seemingly healthy baby.
Reflexes
Unlearned, organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certin stimuli.
Rooting reflex
Neonates tendency to turn its head towards this that touch its cheek.
Moro reflex
Activated when support for the neck and head is suddenly removed. Arms of the infant are thrust outward and then appear to grasp onto something.
Dynamic system theory
A theory of how motor skills develop and are coordinated.
Norms
The average performance of a large sample of children of a given age.
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
NBAS A measure designed to determine infants' neurological and behavior responses to their environment. Supplement to Apgar test.
Malnutrition
Condition of having an improper amount and balance of nutrients.
Nonorganic failure to thrive
A disorder in which infants stop growing due to a lack of stimulation and attention as the result of inadequate parenting. lack of love and emotional support.
Obesity
Weight greater than 20% above the average for a given age and height.
Sensation
The physical stimulation of the sense organs.
Perception
The sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli involving the sense organs and brain.
Multimodal approach to perception
The approach that considers how information that is collected by various individuals sensory systems is integrated and coordinated.