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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The _____ proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease.
medical model
Prior to the 18th century and the medical model, most conceptions of abnormal behavior were based on _____
superstition
The medical model has been critized (by ____) on the grounds that it turns _______ into medical questions.
Szasz

deviance
Minor critocisms of the medical model:
- Labeling, self-fulfilling prophecy
- pseudoexplanations
- passive patient role
_____ involves distinguishing one illness from another
diagnosis
_____ refers to the causes and developmental history of the DO.
etiology
_____ is a forecast about the probable course of an illness
prognosis
Criteria of abnormal behavior (only one has to be fulfilled to classify):
- Statistical deviance (from societal norms)
- Maladaptive behavior (Is it harmful? Does it interfere with your ability to function in day-to-day life?)
- Personal distress
Diagnosis of psychological DOs involve ______ about what represents normal or abnormal behavior
value judgments
Evolutionary psychologists have proposed that mental disorders ought to be viewed as harmful ______
evolutionary dysfunction
Normality and abnormality exist on a _____, not an either-or proposition
continuum
Stereotypes of psychological DOs:
1. Personal weakness (this is not correct b/c some causes of DOs are beyond control--i.e. biological)

2. incurable (most PDOs respond well to treatment)

3. violent and dangerous

4. bizarre behavior
The Featured Study by ______ (with pseudopatients were admitted into mental hospitals because they heard voices--hospitals were unable to detect patients' normalcy) suggested that:
Rosenhan

the distinction b/w normality and abnormality is not clear-cut.
_____ is the study of the distribution of mental or physical DOs in the population
epidemiology
In epidemiology, _____ refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a DO during a specified time period.
prevalence
_____ - the percetage of ppl who endure a specific DO at any time in their lives
lifetime pervalence
____ is the official psychodiagnostic classification system in the US. (Published by the American Psychiatric Association)
DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DOs)
The DSM-IV system asks for information about the patients on five ____, or dimensions.
axes
The diagnosis of DOs are made on ____; most DOs are recorded on Axis___
Axes I and II

I
Axis II is used to list long-running ______ or ____
Personality DOs or Mental Retardation
Axis I (clinical syndromes) contains:
1. DOs usually diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence (i.e. ADD, autism)

2. Organic mental DOs (i.e. amnesia)

3. Substance-related DOs (alcohol abuse)

4.Schizophrenia and other psychotic DOs

5. Mood DOs

6. Anxiety DOs

7. Somatoform DOs

8. Dissociative DOs

9. Sexual and gender-identity DOs

10. Eating DOs
Axis III records
general mediccal conditions
Axis IV records ___, that may affect Axis I and Axis II DOs.
psychosocial and enironmental problems
Axis V uses _____; estimates are made of the individual's current and past level of adaptive functioning (social and occupational)
Global assessment of functioning (GAF)
____ (Axis I) are a class of DOs marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety.
Anxiety DOs
4 principal types of anxiety DOs:
1. Generalized anxity DO

2. Phobic DO

3. Panic DO

4. Obsessive-compulsive DO
(Anxiety DO) The ______ DO is marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat; sometime called "free-floating anxiety"
generalized anxiety DO
(Anxiety DO) A ____ is marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger.
phobic DO
(Anxiety DO) A _____ DO is characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety tha usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly.
panic DOs
(Anxiety DO) Phobia of _____ are most prevalent, followed by ____, then ____
Bugs, mice, snakes, bats

Acrophobia (heights)

Hydorphobia (water)
A common complication of panic DOs is ____ (fear of going out to public places; concerned about having panic attakcs in public
agoraphobia
(Anxiety DO) The vast majority of ppl who suffer from panic DOs or agoraphobia are of what sex?
females
(Anxiety DO) An _____ DO is characterized by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (____) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (____)
obsessive-compulsive DO

obsession

compulsion
(Anxiety DO) B/W __ to __ % of the population experiences OCD at one point in their lives
2 to 4
(Anxiety DO) Most common OCD:
1. contamination by germs

2. checking behavior

3. counting behavior
____ indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives that exhibit the same DO.
concordance rate
(Somatoform DOs) ______ are genuine physical problem caused in part by psychological factors esp. emotional stress. Give Examples:
Psychosomatic disease

ulcer, high BP
(Somatoform DOs)______ are physical problems that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors.
somatoform DOs
(Somatoform DOs) _____ is marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin.
Somatization DO
(Somatoform DOs) Somatization DO is more commmon in Men or women?
women