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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Fluctuations in blood _____ (a simple sugar that is an important source of energy) also seem to play a role in hunger.
glucose
The condition of being overweight
obesity
About ____ of men and women in the US are overweight
1/4
The lateral and ventromedial areas of the _____ were once viewed as the on-off centers for hunger contral, but their exacr role is now unclear
hypothalmus
Recent research mow suggests that the _____ of the hypothalmus may be more important to the regulation of hunger. Neural circuits releasing neuropeptide ___ may be especially influential.
paraventricular nucleus

Y
____ are neurons sensitve to glucose in the surrounding fluid.
glucostats
_____--weight in kg divided by height in meters squared (kg/m^2)
body mass index ( BMI )
Hormonal regulation of hunger depends primarily on _____ secretions; sight of food, or food-related cues, can act to secrete _____.
insulin
Evidence indicates that there is a _____ preposition to obesity
genetic
Weight probelms can also be caused by an elevated _____ ( a natural point of stability in body weight ).
set point
Vacillations in dietary ______ resulting in disinhibition may contribute to obesity in some people.
restraint
______ involves goal-directed behavior.
Motivation
Most theories of motivation distinguish between _____ motives that originate in bodily needs (i.e. hunger) and _____ motives that originate in _____ experiences (i.e. need for achievement)
biological

social; social
Three key environmental factors in the regulation of hunger:
1. Learned preferences
2. food-related cues
3. stress
According to set-point theory, the bosy monitors _____ stores to keep them fairly stable.
fat
_____ are the principal classs of gonadal hormones in females; ____ are the principal classs of gonadal hormones in males.
estrogens

androgens
A _____ is a chemical secreted by one animal that affects the behavior of another.
pheromone
_____ are substances thought to increase sexual desire
aphrodisiacs
______ may make sexual coercion seem less offensive and may contribute to date rape.
aggressive pornography
According to the ____ theory, males are thought to compete with other males for reproductive opportunites and females are assumed to be the discriminating sex that is selective in choosing partners.
parental investment
Consistent with ____ theory, males tend to think about and initate sex more than females and to have more sexual partners and more interest in casual sex than females.
evolutionary
According to evolutionary theories (Featured study by Buss supports), males emphasize potential's partners' _____ whereas females emphasize______.
youthfulness and attractiveness


status and financial prospects
_____ refers to a person's preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same, different or either sex.
sexual orientation
Recent data on the prevalence of homosexuality suggest that ____ % of the population may be gay.
5-8
Although most gays can trace their homosexual leanings back to _____, research has not supported Freudian or behavioral theories of sexual orientation.
early childhood
Recent studies suggest that there is a _____ preposition to homosexuality and that some subtle disparities in ____ structure may be associated with homosexuality.
genetic

brain
Idiosyncrasies in _____ secretions may also contribute to the development of homosexuality.
prenatal hormonal
Who proposed an interactionist theory of how secual orientation develops that is highly speculative but worthy of empirical testing.
Bem
(Study by William Masters and Virginia Johnson) The human sexual response cycle may be divided into four stages:
excitment
plateau
orgasm
resolution
The _______ is the need to associate with others and maintain social bonds.
affliation motive
Individual differences in the need for affiliation are usuallt measured with the ______.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Ppl who are relatively ___ in the need for affiliation tend to devote more time to interpersonal activites and to worry more about acceptance than others do.
high
The ______ is the need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet high standards of excellence.
achievemnt motive
Situational factors also influence achievement behavior. Pursiut of achievement tends to increase when the probablity of ______ and the incentive _____ of success are high. This pursuit can also be inhibited by________
success

value

fear of failure
Emotion involves 1. a subjective conscious experience (the ______ component) 2. bodily arousal (the _____ component) and by 3. characteristic overt expressions (the _____ component)
cognitive
physiological
behavioral
This arousal is the basis for the ______, which is really an emotion detector.
lie detector
The _____ appears to be the hub of an emotion-processing system in the brain
amygdala
An increase in the electrial conductivity of the skin that occurs when sweat glands increase thier activity.
galvanic skin response (GSR)
_____ are the norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotions. They prescribe how, when , and to whom people can show various emotions.
display rules
(THEORIES OF EMOTION)

The _____ theory asserts that emotion results from one's perception of automatic arousal.
James-Lange
(THEORIES OF EMOTION)

The _____ theory propses that emotions orginate from subcortial brain structure that simulataneously sends signals to the cortex(creating the consious experience of emotion) and to the automatic nervous system (creating visceral arousal).
Cannon-Bard
(THEORIES OF EMOTION)

According to ______ theory, people infer emotion from arousal and then label it in accordance with their cognitive explantion for the arousal.
Schacher's two-factor
Schacher's two-factor theory is supported by the bridge study done by
Dutton and Aron
(THEORIES OF EMOTION)

_____ theories of emotion maintain that emotions are innate reactions that require little cognitive interpretation.
Evolutionary
Indivduals' personal perceptions of their overall happiness and life satisfaction
subjective well-being