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37 Cards in this Set

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Memory?
The mental processes that enable us to acquire, retain, and retrieve information over time.
Explicit Memory?
Memory that clearly and distinctly expresses specific information (AWARENESS of knowledge.)
Implicit Memory?
Memory that is SUGGESTED but not plainly expressed (not consciously recollected but still affects behavior.)
Flashbulb Memory?
The recall of very SPECIFIC IMAGES, or details surrounding a vivid, rare, or significant personal event; details may or may not be accurate especially with time.
Anterograde amnesia?
Failure to remember events that occur AFTER physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma' inability to store new memories; forward-acting amnesia
Retrograde Amnesia
Failure to remember events that occur PRIOR to physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma; especially loss of personal memory; backward-acting amnesia
Alzheimer's Disease
Memory impairment, language disturbance, impaired motor abilities, failure to recognize or identify objects, disturbance in executive functioning. (Deficient in Acetylcholine)
Dissociative Disorders
Disruptions of awareness, memory, and personal identity.
Dissociative Fugue
Person abruptly leaves his/her home or work and travels to another place, having lost all memory of the past. While in the new location, person invents new memories and becomes more "outgoing." During recovery, events before the fugue are not remembered.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
2 or more identities or ALTERS within the same person; each have distinct traits and memories that "occupy" the same person.
Dissociative Amnesia
Partial or total inability to recall important information that isn't due to a medical condition, injury, or drug. Amnesia for personal events. RESULT OF TRAUMA, or a STRESSFUL PERIOD.
Cognition
AKA THINKING; mental activity involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge (often directed towards a goal, purpose, or conclusion.)
Convergent thinking
Thought is limited to present facts as the problem solver tries to narros his/her thinking to find the best solutions (multiple choice.)
Creativity
Group of cognitive processes used to generate useful, original, and movel ideas or solutions to problems.
Language
Communication of thoughts and feelings by means of symbols that are arranged according to the rules of grammar.
Retrograde Amnesia
Failure to remember events that occur PRIOR to physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma; especially loss of personal memory; backward-acting amnesia
Alzheimer's Disease
Memory impairment, language disturbance, impaired motor abilities, failure to recognize or identify objects, disturbance in executive functioning. (Deficient in Acetylcholine)
Dissociative Disorders
Disruptions of awareness, memory, and personal identity.
Dissociative Fugue
Person abruptly leaves his/her home or work and travels to another place, having lost all memory of the past. While in the new location, person invents new memories and becomes more "outgoing." During recovery, events before the fugue are not remembered.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
2 or more identities or ALTERS within the same person; each have distinct traits and memories that "occupy" the same person.
Sensitive Period
Period of time from 18-24 months up until puberty where the brain is more flexible and language development is easier.
Bilingualism
Learning of more than one language.
Intelligence
Global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment.
David Wechsler
Developed many IQ tests; compared scores based on how a person's answers compare with or deviate from those attained from people in the same age group.
Alfred Binet
Developed mental age VS chronological age; believed intelligence consists of several related factors and can vary from time to time.
Lewis Terman
Translated Binets test and called it SBIS; scores were expressed as intelligence quotients (IQs) derived by dividing the mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.
Charles Spearman
Suggested the behaviors we consider intelligent have a common factor; g-general intelligence (problem solving abilities) and s-specific abilities (those who exceed in one area.)
Louis Thurstone
Found limited evidence for g factor, and labeled primary mental abilities more like Wechsler.
Reliability
Test must consistently produce similar scores on different occasions
Validility
Test measures what it is supposed to measure
Emotional Intelligence
Failure to develop emotional IQ is connected with childhood depression and aggression.
Wernicke's aphasia
Difficulty comprehending written or spoken communication. They CAN speak, but have DIFFICULTY finding the words.
Broca's aphasia
Difficulty producing speech. Cannot speak but can comprehend.
Stress
Negative emotional state occurring in response to events that are perceived as exceeding a person's resources or ability to cope--the demand that is made on an organism to adapt.
Somatoform Disorders
Constant belief that there is a serious disease, yet not evidence of an abnormality can be found.
Conversion Disorder
A major change or loss of physical functioning, although no medical explanations are found. Person "converts" the source of stress into a physical difficulty.
Hypochondriasis
Insisting that a serious disease is present but no medical evidence is present. Person becomes preoccupied with minor physical sensations and goes doctor to doctor.