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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
convergence
separate adaptations independently produced by natural selection
analogous
convergence
homologous
common ancestor
shared traits
from ancestors
derived traits
from last common ancestor
outgroups
neighboring groups with shared traits
phyogeny
family tree
Cladogram
phylogeny with strict attention to derivation
node
last branch on a tree
synapomorphy
(derived or specialised character) shared by two or more groups which originated in their last common ancestor
parsimony
efficient useof resources
ostelogy
bone study
axial
head & trunk
appendicular
appendages
cranial
skull
post cranial
everything but the skul
frontal bone
frontal lobe
parietals
top sides
occipital
back of head
temporals
temples
zygomatics
cheekbones
Nasals
nose
maxilla
upper cheek
mandible
lower jaw
incisors
front 4
canines
pointy
premolars
4,3,2
molars
3
wolff's law
bone builds up along stress lines
therefore expect morebone to be there
primate trends
1 genera tooth pattern
2)5 fingers toes
3)nails not claws
4)clavicle
5)long pre/post natal
6)reduced snout
7)stereo/color
8)encephalization
9)erect/flex
prosimians
tarsier
lemur
loris

incomplete orbital closure, moist/whiskers, tooth comb
lemuriforms
vcl
madagascar
quadruped
lorisiforms
arboreal
anthropoids
monkeys
apes
humans

fused mandible, no comb, larger
tarsier
difficult

nocturnal, unfused -> prosimian
dry/nose, closed orbital -> anthro
strepsorrhines
prosimians without tarsier
haplorines
anthropoid & tarsier
Platyrrhines
NWM 2-1-3-3
arboreal

(c - ids subfamily)
catarrhines
OWM, apes humans
2-1-2-3

no prehensile tail (no tail on apes)
callitrichids
platy

tamarinds & marmosets
no sex dimorphism
vcl, small
cebid
platy

* monkeys
arboreal quadrapeds
colobines
catar

leaf eaters, long guts
langars
cercopithicine
OWM

catar, non hominodae
macaques
hominoids
monkeys, apes humans
hylobatidae pongidae hominidae
pongids
great apes
knuckle walkers
no mated pairs/sex dimorphism
hominids
encephalization, big body
little sex dimorphism
bipedal
prognathism
reduced snout
hylobatids
brachiators
siamang gibbon
faunivore
plants in general
foliovore
leaf eating
frugivore
fruit
encephalized
big brain
diastema
gap between incisor and canine
cp3-honing
owm
loss of 3 molar
grade
old stye. evo bioogy
prosimian v anthropoid
clade
heavy on dna

strepshirrines
haplorhines
socia group types
solitary orang/prosim
pair gibbon/marmoset
harem gorillas/langurs
multi(2) babboon/NWM
fission/fusion chimps
polyandry(mm) marmosets
home range
dependent upon group/body size
"" food distribution
"" size of habitat
"" comp w/ other groups
body size
relation w diet

bigger size more food, easier
diet
leaves in gut = bad hunter
leaf eatin monkey (colobine):
specialized digestive&tooth crest
lazy
smaller brain v body size
theories on evoution of atruism
1 group seexn
2 nepotism
3 reciprocity
group selection
indiscriminate altruism
how inherited?
nepotism
kin-directed
non-random by hamilton
reciprocity
pay-back
'tit for tat'
hamilton's rule
rB>C
altruism
selfish
mutual
altruistic
spiteful
sexual selection
infanticide
inteligence models
ecological problems

social challenges
intelligence
probem solving
learned behavior
curiosity
extractive foods
yield bigger neocortex ratios
neocortex
problem sovgin/fexibiity behavior
3rd party relationships
theory of mind
redirected aggression
aimed @ maternal kin/aggressor
theory of mind
understanding/knowing others v your mental state
'mind reading' module
crucial for lying
deception
concealment
distraction
false image
manipulation
chimp too use
nut cracking
termite extraction
leaf folding
prosim v anthropoid
lemur oris tarsier
v
monkey apes humans
platy v catar
NWM v OWM
cebid v calatrichid
platys

cebid - * monkey
calitricid - marmoset
colobine v cercopthicine
catar

colobine-angur
cercopith-baboon macaque
hominid v cercipithecoidea
branch of catarrhinide
hominid v pongid v hylobatid
human v ape v OWM
strepsirrhine v haplorhine
lemur loris v tarsier owm
competition
monogamous
2 one m multi f
3 multi m multi f
mate choice
estrus swelling
induces competition
mate choice models
1 direct bennies by males 2 females
2 good genes from males
3 sexy sons
evol pssych
models of the mind, how did evolve?
eea
eea
environmental evolution adpativeness
waist hip ratio
indicator of fertility
'beauty dictated by natural sellection
modular mind theory
shaped by natural seection
1000s of models