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26 Cards in this Set

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What is dormancy?
What can dictate this?
-the period of inactivity
-winter, drought, etc
What determines the length of dormancay?
What is it in Vermont?
-geographic location and plant species
-October through April
What are the two phases of dormancy?
1) Rest period: will NOT grow
2) Dormant yet reactive: plant will grow if given a favorable environment (Feb-April)
-What is a nice stem to force into flower?
-forsythia
-crab apples
-hyacinths
What occurs during the vegetative phase of plant growth?
-food resources to produce leaves, stems, and roots
-juvenile phase where reproduction can't occur but plant appears mature
What occurs during the reproductive phase of plant growth?
-sugars and starches are stored
-the plant flowers, produces seeds and fruit
What is senescence?
How does it vary?
-rapid or gradual cycle until death
-in hardy perennials, only above ground part senescences
-in wood trees and shrubs, only fruits and leaves scnescence
What regulates a plants vegetative and reproductive cycles?
-age/maturity of the plant
-CHO/nitrogen balance
What does CHO/Nitrogen balance have to do with reproduction?
-CHO's come from photosynthesis in leaves
-Nitrogen is taken up by roots
-Too much Nitrogen can prevent a plant from flowering (reproduction)
What makes up a cell wall?
-polysaccharides (long chains of simple sugars like glucose)
What is cellulose in terms of glucose composition?
-unbranched polymer of several 1000 glucose molecules
What is hemicellulose?
-like cellulose, but branched
-combustible
-indigestible by mammals, but ruminants have special bacteria to do this in stomach)
Who made the first microscope and when?
-Robert Hooke in 1665
What makes cells hard?
-lignin (polymers of phenolic acid)
What is the purpose of lignin?
-hardens cellulose walls
-resists microbial decomposition
-causes yellowing in paper
What are the three layers of cell walls and what makes up each?
-primary cell wall (cellulose and pectin)
-middle lamella (pectin)
-secondary cell wall (cellulose and lignin) *may not always be present
What causes fruit rot?
-bacteria/fungi breaking down pectin
-similar to mortar between bricks
What are the pores and strands that connect cells?
-plasmodesmata
What percentages make up cells?
-85-90% water
-10-15% organic and inorganic substances whether dissolved (CHO's) or colloidal (proteins and fats)
What is mRNA?
-relays genetic information from nucleus to ribosomes (often attached to ER, where proteins are made)
What is in the nucleus of a cell?
-chromosomes
-DNA
What are plastids and where are they found?
-found in cytoplasm
-leucoplasts (colorless)
-chromoplasts (colored)
What is a chloroplast?
-a chromoplast that contains chlorophyll
-photosynthesis occurs here
-have grana (stacked)
-has stroma (surrounds grana where CO2 is converted to CHO's)
What is mitochondria?
-power center for cell which has proteins and phospholipids
-makes ATP which carries energy
What are vacuoles?
membrane-lined cavities in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap and controls turgor
What makes up cell sap?
-water, salts, and organic materials
(90% water, 8% sugar, 2% minerals/AA/other)