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60 Cards in this Set

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dolphins learn through...
observational training
defn learning
any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs b/c of experience

distinct from: drugs/fatique/illness

can be:cognitive based/motor based
3 assumptions about learning
1)responses are learned rather than innate
2)learning is adaptive
3)our experiance can uncover the laws of nature
classical conditioning
learning associations between 2 stimulus events / stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus

ex: bell and food
operant/instrumental conditioning
learning associations between behavior and its consequences

ex: press lever = food
Ian Pavlov
russian pscyhcologist/ studied digestion & salivation in dogs/ discovered classical conditioning (systematically investigate)
unconditioned response UCS
stimulus that elicits a reflexive reponse in the absence of learning
unconditioned response UCR
unlearned reaction to an UCS that ccurs w/out conditioning
conditioned stimulus CS
an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elecit a conditioned respose after being associated w/the unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response CR
learned reaction to a CS that occurs b/c of previous conditioning
conditioned taste aversion
if a flavor is follweed by an ilness experiance, animals will aviod the flavor in the future

ex: LiCl
trial
pairing of UCS & CS
aquisition
inital stage in learning
stimulus contiguity
occcuring together in time and space
4 types of classical conditioning
1) trace/fwd - CS begins and ends before UCS is presented

2) simultaneous - CS & UCS begin and end together

3) short-delayed - CS begins just before UCS, end together

4) backward conditioning - UCS begins and ends before CS is presented
aquisition
repeated pairings of CS and UCS
extinction
refers to the weakening of conditioning evident when CS is presented repreatedly w/out the UCS
spontaneous recovery
refers to the reemergence of a previously extinguished CR
stimulus generalization
once an organism has learned to associate a CS with a UCS, it may respond to a stimuli that resemble the CS w/ a similar response
discrimination
the learned tendency to respond to a restricted range of stimuli or only to the stimulus used during training
higher order conditioning - 2
occurs when a CS functions as if it were a UCS

1)neutral stimulus #1 paired w/UCS (done until it becomes a CS and elicits a CR

2) netural stimulus #2 paired w/CS #1 and also aquires the capacity to elicit the same CR as once elicited by UCS
prior conditioning history is...
important
latent inhibition
repeated exposure to a neutral stimulus alone (no UCS) makes it more difficult to use the stimulus as a CS in the future

ex: bell on door of pavlov's experiment room
blocking
the failure of a stimulus to elicit a CR when it is combined w/ a stimulus that already elicits the response
Judy - jumps when she hears thunder after lightening
CR, CS, UCS, UCR
UCS = thunder
UCR = jump
CS = lightning
CR = jump
applications of classical conditioning - 3
1) alcoholism
2) phobias - estinguish undesirable CR
3) saving wild coyotes from farmers
operant/instrumental conditioning
learner is instrumental in achieving the desired result/ responses operate on enviorment and insturmental in receiving reward/ responses are emitted - not elicited
law of effect
if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is stregnthened
skinner's principles of reinforcement
organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favorable consequences
aquisition
initial learning of a new pattern of responses
shaping
reinforcing closer approximations of a desired response
Discriminative stimuli
cues about probable consequences of a response
reinforecement
not necessarily experiance of pleasure/ does reponse go up or down?/ defined after the fact/ intended to increase behavior
(+) reinforcement
makes responses more likely to occur in future

ex: getting A's = money, love, treats from parents
(-) reinforcment -2
termination of an aversive event makes a behavior more likely to occur in future/ not punishment

1)escape learning
2)aviodance learning
escape learning
a behavior is reinforced by the elimination of an aversive state of affairs that already exists

ex: aspirin
aviodance learning
an organism learns to prevent an expected acersice evnet from happening

ex: child cleaning is room to not get yelled at
delayed/ primary/ secondary reinforcers
slower condition / satisfy biological needs / conditioned reinforcment (ex. money=prestige)
punishment - 2
presentation of aversive stimulus or removal of a pleasant one following some behavior

1) (-) = exposure to aversive event
2) (+) = losing/not obtaining reinforcer
unintended side effects of punishment - 5
1) learner may not understand which operant is being punished

2) learner may come to fear the teacher, rather than learn an association between the action and punishment

3) punishmemnt may not undo existing rewards for behavior

4)punitive affressoin may lead to future affression

5)signals what is inappropriate but does not specify correct alternatvie behavior
guidelines for punishment - 5
1) apply punishment swiftly

2) use punishment just severe enought ot be effective

3) make punishment consistent

4) explain the punishment - more effective

5) minimize dependence on physical punishment
schedules of reinforcement/ continous
determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer/ when every instance of a designated response is reinforced
intermittent(partial) reinforcement
when a response is reinforced only some of the time
ratio schedules - 2
1)fixed ratio - fixed # of responses required for reinforcement ex: compensation

2)variable ratio - # of responses required for reinforcment varies around an average ex: slot machine
interval schedules - 2
1) fixed interval - fixed set of time must elapse before next opportunity for reinforcment ex: exam study behvior

2) variable interval: time intercal that must elapse before next opportunity for reinforcment varies
partial reinforcement
compared to contunous reinforcement, partial reinforcement schedules yield the longest lasting learning/ measured by extinction response
Biological Constraints - 3
.
.
.
.
.
1)Instinctive drift
2)Taste aversions
3)Preparedness
1)Instinctive drift- innate responses interfere with conditioning

2)Taste aversions- impossible to prevent while other stimuli could not force an aversion

3)Preparedness- species specific predisposition to be conditioned in some ways but not others
behavior modification examples: autism and animal training
goeal: use positive reinforcement to modiy behavior/ technique: 1)shaping(closer approximations of desired response) or 2)chaining (putting together a seq of existing responses)
cognitive social theory
challenged classical conditioning and operant conditioning / argued that learning also comes from mental processes / learning is more than associations, reinforcments & punishments / incorporates cognition and social learning
cognitive map
a mental representation or picture of the enviorment /
latent learning
learning that has occured but is not currently manifest in behavior
locus of control - 2
refers to the generalized expectancies people hold about whether or not their own behavoir can bring about outcomes they seek / fate

1) internal 2) external
internal locus of control
believer they're masters of their own fate
external locus of control
believe that their lives are governed by forces outside of themselves
learned helplessness
expectancy that one cannot escape aversive events

ex: dogs getting shocked and not jumping over barrier
attibution of causes in terms of...3
1)internal vs. external

2)stable vs. temp

3)global vs. specific
social learning
individuals learn things from people w/out reinforcement
obeservational learning
umm..self explanatory
modeling
reproduce behavior of others
vicarious conditioning
a person learns consequences by observing others consequences