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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the process by which our sense organs recieve infor form the enviorment
process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory inputs
the study of how stimuli are translated into pscyhological experience
3 principles w/regard to sensation and perception
1) there is no 1-1 conrrespondence between physical and psychological reality

2) sensation and perception are active processes

3) sensation and perception are adaptive
sensory receptors
translate energy in the enviorment into neural impulses - detet physical energy - tuned to a particlar form of energy (ex: auditory recpetors)
the process by which physical energy is converted into electro-chemical energy
2 types of sensory thresholds
1) absolute - minimum amount of physical energy needed for an observer to notice a stumulus (50% detection rate)

2)Just Notcieable Diff(JND) - lowest level of stimulatoin requred to sense change
Weber's Law
JND in a stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the original
ex: 2 candles, + 1 to acheive JND
ex: 100 candles, +50 to achieve JND
subliminal perception
what happens when/if sensation and perception takes place w/out awareness (or below threshold)

ex: music,movies (lion king)
vision - electromagnetic radiation
1 form that we are used to - vision is adaptive and functional
light detection is useful b/c - 3 ways
1) light travels rapidly
2) light travels in straight lines
3)light interacts w/the surfaces of objs in the enviorment (reflec/absorb)
where light enters the eye - tough transparent tissue that covers and protects
adjustable openening which regulates/where light enters the eye
muscle that controls opening of pupil - resonds to light intensity - unique
bio-crystallin structure that focuses light rays onto the retina - change shape to focus
process in which the lens changes its shape and bends light rays so that objs are in focus
multilayered photo sensitive tissue lining the back surface of the eyeball; an extension of the brain
optic disk
where the optic nerve leaves the eye
blind spot
the pt. on retina where optic nerve cells leave the eye and where theare are no reciptor cells
receptor cells - 2
1) rods - black and white vision/found in periphery of retina/sensitive to moviement

2) cones - color and daylight/found in center/sensitive to fine detail
young-helmholt's trichromatic theory of color vision and problems with this theory - basic level
color is explained by differential activation of 3 color elements in the eye - RGB

problems: aferimages left unexplained - included predictable color diff
hering's opponent process theory of color vision - higher level
visual elements are grouped into 3 pairs 1)RG 2)BY 3)BW

explains complimentary color phenomenom
auditory system
3)complexity/purity-timbre - quality of a sound(ex. same note played on a piano & flute)
external ear - 2
1)pinna - funnels sounds waves into the ear

2)auditory canal - a passageway where sound waves resonate & are amplified
middle ear - 2
1)eardrum/tympanic membrane - oscillates in response to sound waves

2)ossicles - three tiny bones (anvil, hammer, stirrup)- sound waves get further amplified
inner ear - 3
1) semicircular canals - balance

2)cochlea - 3 chambered tube shaped like a snail involved in the transduction of sound

3)basilar membrane - containes the hair cells stimulated by sound
skin senses - 3
1) touch
2) temp
3) pain
pain is influenced by...
culutral beliefs
ex:woman pregnancies
pain is...
adaptive to a degree
gate control theory
emphasizes the role of the central nervous system in regulating pain - a pattern of nueral activity that inhibits incoming pain signals
form perception
the organiation of sensations into meaningful shapes and pattern
gastalt laws of organization -2
1) perceptions are not merely due to elementary sensation
2) the whole is > than the sum
gestalt principles of form perception - 6
1) figure ground perception
2) similarity
3) proximity
4) good continuation
5) simplicity
6) closure
depth perception
organization of perception in 3-D/ we make 3-D judgements based on 2-D retinal image via bonocular and monocular cues, auditry systeam and kinesthetic sensations
one obj blocks another
objs farther away are highter on plane of view
linear persepctive
parallel lines converge in distance
texture gradient
texture of dist objs appears to be finer rather than coarser
brain interprets shading diff toward top/ bottom of obj
aerial persepctive
far objs are fuzzy
familiar size
familiar objs that appear small are inferred to be distant
relative size
when looking @ 3 objs of known similar size, the smaller is seen as farther away
perceptual constancy
the perception of objs as relatively stable despite changes in the stumualtion of sensory receptors
color constancy
tendency to perceive obj color as table under conditions of changing illumination
shape constancy
we maintain constant perception of shape of objs, depsite the fact that the same obj typically produces a new & diff impression on the retina everytime we encounter it
size constancy
objs do not differ in size when viewed from diff distances
top down perceptual processing
starts with observer's expectations/knowledge
top down perceptual processing/ mental represantations of what we expect or what we know about a situation
bottom up perceptual processing
processing that begins w/raw sensory data that feed up the brain / "feature detectors"