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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Psychology?
The scentific study of mental and physical health.
how do psychological researchers use naturalistic
Naturalistic observation, researchers observe and record the behavior of human participants or animal subject in a natural setting w/out attempting to influence or control it.
laboratory observations/
researchers exert more control and use more precise equipment to measure responses.
What are the advanatages and disadvantages of the case study?
case study is particularly appropriate for studying people with rare psychological or physilological disorders or brain injuries. Disadvantages of this method include the time and expense involved in carrying out a thorough case study. In addition, the results of a single case study many not generalize to other individuals.
How do researchers ensure that survey results are useful
surveys must involve a sample that is representative of the population to which the results will be applied.
Why do researchers use experiments to test hypothese about cause-effect relationships?
The experimental method is the only research method that can identify cause-effect relationships.
how do independent and dependent variables differ
In am experiment, an independent variable is a condition of factor manipulated by the researcher to determine its effect of the dependent variable. The dependent variable, measured at the end of the experiment, is presumed to vary as a result of the change in the independent variables.
Why are experimental and control groups necessary?
experimental group is exposed to the independent variable. the control group is similar to the experimental group and experiences the sam experimental environment but is not exposed to the independent variable.
What Kinds of factors introduce bias into experimental studies/
environmental factors, such as heat or noise, can be a source of bias. selection bias occurs when there are systematic differences among the groups before the experiment begins. Experimenter bias occurs when the researcher's expectations affect the outcome of the experiment.
experimental method
the only research method that can be used to identify cause-effect relationships between two or more conditions or variables
hypothesis
a prediction about a cause -effect relationship between two or more variables
independent variable
a factor or condition that is deliberately manipulated in order to determine whether it causes any change in another behavior or condition
dependent variable
the factor or condition that is measured at the end of an experiment and is presumed to vary as a result of the manipulations or the independent variable
experimental group
the group thais is exposed to an independent variable
control group
a grop similar to the experimental group that is exposed to the sam experimental environment but is not given the treatment used for purposes of comparison
confounding variables
factors or conditions other than the independent variables that are not equivalent across groups and could cause differences among the groups with respect to the dependent variable
selection bias
the assignment of participants to experimnetal r control groups in such way that systematic differences among the grops are present at the beginning of the experiment
random assignment
the process of selecting participants for experimental and control groups by using a chance procedure to guarantee that each participant has an equeal probability of being assigned to any of the groups; a control for selection bias
placebo effect
the phenomenon that occurs in an experiment when a participant's response to at reatment is due to his oher expectations abouthe treatment rather than tothe treatment itself
placebo
inert or harmless substance given to the control group in an experiment as a control for the placebo effect
experimenter bias
phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's preconceived notions or expectations in some way influence participants' behavior and the researcher's interpretation of experimental results.
double-blind technique
a procedure in which neither the participants noro the experimneter know who is in the experimental and control groups until after the data have been gathered; a control for experimenter bias
What is a correlation coeffiecient, and what does it menan
a correlation coefficient is a numerical value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables.
positive correlation coefficients
results whien two variables move in the same direction when two variables move in opposite directions, the correlation coeffiecient is negative.
What ethical rules must researchers follow when humans are involved in studies
all research must conform to applicable laws and regulations
how is classical conditioning accomplished
a neutral stimulus is presented shortly before an unconditioned stimulus which naturally elictis or brings forth, and unconditioned response. after repeated pairings, the conditioned stimulus alone comes to elicit the conditioned response
What kinds of changes in stimuli and klearning conditions lead to changes in conditioned responeses?
If the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned simulus the conditioned response becomes progressively weaker and eventually disapppers, a process called extinction. g
operant conditioning
type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated in order to increas or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shape an entirely new response
reinforcer
anything that follows a response and stregthens it or increases that probability that it will occur.
Shaping
An operant conditioning technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behavior by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response, theeby gradually guiding the responses toward the ultimate goal.
Skinner box
a soundproof chamber eith a device for delivering food to an animal subject; used in operant conditioning experiments
Successive approximations
a series of gradual steps each of which is more similar to the final desired response.
Extinction
In operant conditioning the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of the with holding of reinforcement
Generalization
In operant conditioning, the tendency to make the learned response to a stimulus similar to that for which the response was originally reinforced
Discriminative stimulus
A stimuls that signals whether a certain response or behavior is likely to be rewarded, ignored, or punished
reinforcement
Any event that follows a response and strengthens or increases the probability that the response will be repeated
Positive reinforcement
Any pleasant or desirable consequence that follows a response and increases the probability that the response will be repeated
Negative reinforcement
The termination of an upleasant condition after a response, which increases the probabitlity that the resonse will be repeated.
Primary reinforcer
A reinforcer that fulfills a basic physical need for survival and does not depend on learning
Secondar reinforer
A reinforcer that is acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers
Continuous reinforcement
Reinforcement that is administered after every desired or correct response, the most effective method of conditioning a new response.
Partial Reinforcement
A pattern of reinforcement in which some but not all correct responses are reinforced
Punishment
The removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of an unpleasant stimulus, thereby lowering the probability of a respnse
Biofeedback
The use of sensitive equipment to give people precise feedback abot internal physiological processess so that they can learn, with practice, to exercise control over them
Shaping
An operant conditioning technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behavior by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response, theeby gradually guiding the responses toward the ultimate goal.
Skinner box
a soundproof chamber eith a device for delivering food to an animal subject; used in operant conditioning experiments
Successive approximations
a series of gradual steps each of which is more similar to the final desired response.
Extinction
In operant conditioning the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of the with holding of reinforcement
Generalization
In operant conditioning, the tendency to make the learned response to a stimulus similar to that for which the response was originally reinforced
Discriminative stimulus
A stimuls that signals whether a certain response or behavior is likely to be rewarded, ignored, or punished
reinforcement
Any event that follows a response and strengthens or increases the probability that the response will be repeated
Positive reinforcement
Any pleasant or desirable consequence that follows a response and increases the probability that the response will be repeated
Negative reinforcement
The termination of an upleasant condition after a response, which increases the probabitlity that the resonse will be repeated.
Primary reinforcer
A reinforcer that fulfills a basic physical need for survival and does not depend on learning
Secondar reinforer
A reinforcer that is acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers
Continuous reinforcement
Reinforcement that is administered after every desired or correct response, the most effective method of conditioning a new response.
Partial Reinforcement
A pattern of reinforcement in which some but not all correct responses are reinforced
Punishment
The removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of an unpleasant stimulus, thereby lowering the probability of a respnse
Biofeedback
The use of sensitive equipment to give people precise feedback abot internal physiological processess so that they can learn, with practice, to exercise control over them
Behavior modification
A method of changing behavior through a systematic program based ont he learning principles of classical conditioning operant conditioning or observational learning.
Token Economy
A program that motivates socially desirable behavior by reinforcing it with tokens that can be exchaged for desired items or privileges
How do we learn by oserving other
Learning by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of that behavior is know as observational learning.
cognitive processes
Mental processes such as thinking, knowing, problem solving, remembering, and forming mental representations
Insight
The sudden realization fo the relationship between elements in a problem situation, hich makes the solution appernt
Latent learning
Learningh that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not demonstrated until the organism is motivated to do so
Observationial learning
Learning by observing the behavior of others and the consquences of that behavior learning by imitaion
Modeling
another name for observational learning
Model
The individual who demostrates a behavior or whose behavior is imitated
Modeling effect
Learning a new behavior from a model through the aquisition of new responses
Elicitation effect
Exhibiting a behavior similar to that shown by a model in an unfamiliar situation
Disinhibitory effect
Displaying a previously supressed behavior because a model does so without receiving punishment
Inhibitory effect
Suppressing a behavior because a model is punished for displaying the behavior