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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
International Organizations
Institution which carries out activities in more than one state, whose members are held together by a formal agreement.
Types of IO’s
-IGOs
-NGOs
-MNCs
Five Characteristics of IOs
1. Permanent organization
2. Voluntary membership of eligible parties
3. Basic legal document (Charter)
4. Representative, consultative organ
5. Permanent secretariat
History of IOs
Concert of Europe 1816

-Danube commission (1856)
International telegraphic Union (1865)
-Universal Postal Union (1874)
-International Health Office (1907)…

Over 30 organizations existed by 1914…
Woodrow Wilson's 14 points excerpts
Open covenants of peace …
Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas…
Removal…of all economic barriers…
…national armaments will be reduced …
…impartial adjustment of all colonial claims...
Countries in the League of Nations
Russia, Belgium, France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Ottoman Empire, Poland
League of Nations structure
A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike
Organization of the League of Nations
assembly: "one nation, one vote"

permanent secretariat: geneva

the Council: 5 permanent countries (Franch, Great Britain, Japan, USA, Italy, 4-11 non permanent members)

Permanent international court of justice
The United Nations System
created after WWII in order to save succeeding generations from the scourge of another world war
Art . I The Purposes of the United Nations are:
-To maintain international peace and security…;

-To develop friendly relations among nations…;

-To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems…;

-To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
Art. II UN Principles
-Sovereign equality of all its Members.

-Members shall fulfill in good faith the obligations.

-Members shall settle their disputes by peaceful

-Members shall refrain from the threat or use of force

-Members shall give the UN

-Nothing contained in the Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall
UN Budgets
-Regular: As of August 31, 2008, members' arrears to the Regular Budget topped $919 million
the United States alone owed $846 million (92% of the regular budget arrears).


-Voluntary

-Peacekeeping
UN Budget vs US Budget
The President's budget for 2009 totals $3.1 trillion.


The United Nations and all its agencies and funds spend about $20 billion each year, or about $3 for each of the world's inhabitants.
Types of UN involvement
-Preventive diplomacy

-Peacemaking

-Peace-keeping

-Post-conflict peace-building
Characteristics of European Union
-27 members

-To promote peace and prosperity

-1951 European Coal and Steel Community

-Single economy with a common currency

-Most Western European states; since 2004 a significant number of Eastern European states have been added.
Qualified Majority Voting in EU
In sensitive areas such as common foreign and security policy, taxation, asylum and immigration policy, Council decisions have to be unanimous.
European Commission
Independent of national governments.
Upholds the interests of the EU as a whole.
It drafts proposals for new European laws.
It is responsible for implementing the decisions of Parliament and the Council and managing the day-to-day business of the European Union
European Parliament
Elected by the 490 million citizens of the European Union by proportional representation
Elections are held every five years
Last election was in June 2009.
The present parliament has 736 members from all 27 EU countries.
European Court of Justice
Court is composed of one judge per member state, so that all 27 of the EU’s national legal systems are represented.
The Court rarely sits as the full court. It usually sits as a ‘Grand Chamber’ of just 13 judges or in chambers of five or three judges.
Sources of EU Budget
Traditional Own Resources (TOR) duties that are charged on imports of products coming from a non-EU state.

Value Added Tax (VAT) percentage rate that is applied to each member

Gross National Income (GNI) percentage rate applied to the GNI of each member State.
Treaty of Lisbon (12/2009)
A more democratic and transparent Europe
A more efficient Europe
Rights , values, freedom, solidarity & security
Europe as an actor on the global stage

Treaty of Lisbon explicitly recognizes for the first time the possibility for a Member State to withdraw from the Union.
EU subsidiarity
European Union only acts where results can be better attained at EU level
Citizen's Initiative
one million citizens can call on the Commission to bring forward new policy proposals.

REFERENDUM
Social policy
Guidelines and instruments used to change or create living conditions that are conducive to human welfare.
Social justice
creating a society that is based on the principles of equality and solidarity, that understands and values human rights and that recognizes the dignity of every human being
Human Development
Argues that people not production is the real wealth of nations.

A development model that focuses on the creation of an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accordance with their needs and interests.

Measured:

Human needs: basic physical, social, and political requirements needed for survival and security
Human development index (HDI)
Combines life expectancy, literacy, income, and years of education
Better measure than per capita GNP
Preconditions of Human Development
Political freedom
Democracy
Civil liberties and civil rights

National economic growth
“The richer the country, the freer”
Purchasing power parity (PPP): an index that calculates the true rate of exchange among currencies– when what can be purchased is the same –
Domestic Social Policies
Poverty/Hunger
Education
Health/Disease
Equality
Environment
The UN Millennium Development Goals
Are the world's time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions-income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion-while promoting gender equality, education, and environmental sustainability.

They are also basic human rights-the rights of each person on the planet to health, education, shelter, and security.
Policy
A deliberate plan of action to guide decisions and achieve a rational outcome