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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Neuron
inpulses through the nervous system
cell body
contains the nucleus and carries outthe metabolic functions of trhe neuron
thought, feelings, and behavior can be traced through
neurons
branching out
dendrites
sprouts into many braches
axon
specialized cells in the brain and spinal cord
glial cells
the junction where the axon terminal of a sending neurons communcicates with a receiving neuron across the synaptic cleft
synapse
penetrated or passed through
permeability
the slight negative electrical potential of the axon membrane of a neuron at rest, about - 70 millivolts.
resting potential
sudden reversall of the resting potential
action potential
white, fatty coatin wrapped around some axons that acts as insulation and enables impulses to travel much faster
myelin sheath
chemical substance that is released into the synaptic cleft from the axon terminal of a sending neuron, crosses a synapes, and binds to appropriate recepto sites on the dendrites or cell body of a receiving neuron, influecing the cell either to fire or not to fire.
neurotransmitter
protein molecules on the surfaces of dendrites and cell bodies that have distinctive shapes and will interact only with specific neurotransmitters.
receptors
neurontransmitters are taken from the synaptic cleft back into the axon terminal for later use.
reuptake
meurotransmitter that plays a role in learning new information, causes the skeletal mm fibers to contract, and keeps the heart from beating too rapidly
acetylcholine
NTM that plays a role in learning, attention, moveent, and reinforcement
dopamine
NTM taffecting eating, alertness, and sleep
norepinephrine
NTM that affects the metabolism of glucose an dnutrient energy stored inmm to be released during strenuous exercise.
epinephrine
ntm that plays an improtant role in regulating mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression, and appetite.
serotonin
primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain
glutamate
primary inhibitory neurotransmitter tin the brain
GABA
by the brain that reduce pain and the stress of vigorous exercise and postively affect mood
endorphins
structure that begins at hte point where the spinal cord enlarges as it enters the brain and handles function critical to physical survival
brainstem
controls heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, and swallowing.
medulla
arousal and attention that screens sensory messages entering the brain
reticular formation
excute smooth, skilled movements and regulates mm tone and posture.
cerebellum
midbrain that control unconscious motor movements
substrantia nigra
relay station for information flowing into or out of the forebrain
thalamus
hypothalamus
small but influential brain structure that reglates hunger, thirst, sex, internal body temp,
emotional expression, memory, and motivation
limbic system
important role in emotion particulary in respones to unpleasant or punishing stimuli
amygdala
storing of new memories
hippocampus
the largest structure o f the human brain
cerebrum
the right and left halves of the cerbrum,
cerbral hemisheres
thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebal hemishpers and makes possible the transfer of information and synchronization of activity bw the hemishpere
corpus callosum
gray covering of cerbral hemisheres that is responsible for the higher mental processes of language, memory,a nd thinking
cerebral cortex
house memories and involved in thought
association areas
the motor cortex, Broca's area, and the frontal association area
frontal lobes
controls voluntary body movements and participates in learning and cognitive events
motor cortex
adapt to changes
plasticity
that controls the production of speech sounds
broca area
ability to produce speech sounds or in exterme cases an inability to speak at all caused by damage to Broca area
broca's aphasia
loss or impairment of th ability to use or understand language, resulting from damage to thebrain
aphasia
where toch pressure, temp, and pain register and other areas that are responsible for body awareness and spatial orientations
parietal lobes
the strip of tissure at the front of the parietal lobes where touch, pressure, temperature, and pain register in the cerbral cortes.
somatosensory cortex
brain wave activity made by a machine
EEG
brain wave pattern associated with mental or physical activity
beta wave
BW associated with deep relaxation
alpha wave
bw associated with deep sleep
delta wave
small wire used tomonitor the electrical activity of or stimulate activity within a singel neuron
microelectrode
CT scan
brain scaning techinque that uses a rotating computerized x-ray tube to produce crosssectional impages of the structures or the brain
MRI
high resolution impages of the structures of the brain
PET
reveals activity in vrious parts of the brain, based on patterns of blood flow, oxygen use, and glucose consumption
MRI
brain-imaging ttechinique that reveal both brain structure and brain activity more precisely and rapidly than PET
PNS
nerves connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body
sympathetic nervous system
division fo the autonomic nerovous system tha mobilizes the body's resources during stress and emergences, preparing the body of action.
brings the heightened bodily responses back to normal following emergency
parasympathetic nervous system
system of ductless glands in various parts of the body that manufacture hormones and secrete them into the bloodstream, thus affecting cell in other parts of the body
endocrine system
chemich substance that is manufactured and released in one part of the body and affects orther parts of the body
hormone
endocrine gland located in the brain that releases hormones that activate other endocrine glands as well as growht hormone; often called the master gland
pituitary gland
pair of endocrine glands that release hormones that prepart the body for emergencies and stessful situation and also release coricoids and small amounts of hte sex hormones.
adrenal gland
How are messages transmittedthrought he nervous system?
action potential
What do neurotransmitters contribute to nervous system
they cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the receiving neuron, influencing the cell to fire or not to fire. They transmit messages betwwen neurons.