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50 Cards in this Set

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Political Party
-group of office holders, candidates, or activists and voters who identify with a group label
-seek to elect individuals who run under that label
-democratic or republican
-third or minor parties
third or minor parties
Independence party, green party, conservative party, working families party
First parties
anti-federalist and federalists
1817-1825 Era of good feelings
-party politics disappeared at the national level
Electorate
people who can vote
1832
First presidential nominating convention
-Andrew Jackson: first democratic nomine
-WIG party was formed to oppose him (Henry Clay was one of the first leaders)
-Northern WHIGS were known as Republicans
-Abrham lincoln was the first
Modern Era
-party/govt. was interchangeable
political machines
party orgs. that recruit members by offering tangible incentives like jobs, money and favors in exchange for votes
Party Boss
Head of the political machine
patronage jobs
political jobs
Large decrease in political parties
1. Govt gradually taken over many functions that were performed by the parties
2. Tv influences
3. Rise of political consultants
4. Issue oriented politics
5. Civil service laws
6. Direct primary
3 types of political party members
1.governmental party( office holders, candidates)
2. Orginizational party ( workers, activists)
3. Party-in-electorate ( vote for the party, allied with the party)
Minor parties
2000: green party- nador (environment)
1992 and 1996:Perot- reform party( budgeting, taxes,debt)
1912: T Roosevelt-bull moose party
1909-1913: Taft-R Wilson-D and T roosevelt
Why third parties form
1. Selectionalism- Dixiecrats-1948
2. Economic protest- populists 1892
3. Specific issues- green party
4. Idealogy- socialists, communists
5. Charadmatic personality- Wallace(American independence party)
6. Failure of two major parties- Perot- reform party
Why do minor parties stay minor?
1. News media ignores them
2. National and state legislature are organized on 2 parties
3. Most states allow automatic placement for democrats and republicans on ballot
4. Public funding is more generous to the democrats and republicans
5. Have a single member plurality electoral system
Purpose of elections
-fill public offices an organize governments
- govt accountable to people
Mandate
Command from people to implement an agenda
Perspective judgement
Vote based on premises of campaign
Retrospective judgement
Voting because it's the other person
Basically not voting for someone
Nomination election
Election within party
Primarys
1. Closed primary- only party members can votes
2. Open primary- allows independents to vote too
3. Blanket primary- vote in either partys primary (office by office basis)
4. Runoff primary- top two candidates have another primary
Caucus
Native American for merton place
Party conventions
Formal nominations
General elections
-1st Tuesday after the 1st Monday in November
- in november because dust want people traveling on Sunday do they would travel on
Monday
-Tuesday so it wasn't on all saints day
Electoral college
Need 270 out of 538
Increased voter participation
1.initiative- citizens to propose legislation and put it up for a popular vote
2. Referendum- allows legislature to submit laws to public for approval
3. Recall- allows citizens to remove an elected official from office prior to end of term
Mid-term elections
-middle of presidents term
-every two years all of house of reps and 1/3 senate
-presidents party looses seas: except in 1934 and 2002
-1994- Clinton's party lost big
Republican revolution
Nomination campaign
-aimed at party leaders and activists within the party who choose nominees in primaries or conventions
-need to appeal to activists pushes candidate to an ideological extreme, while party leaders are interested in electability
General election campaign
Ultimate goal for all candidates is to win the general election so he must avoid becoming too extreme during the nomination phase because that may alienate the more moderate voters in the general election
Personal campaign
Behind the scenes, every candidate needs an organization that can write press releases, distribute literature, organize events, raise money, and contact voters
Media campaign
All campaigns use media whether paid or free, print or electronic
Paid media
Campaign pay for ads on television and radio
Free media
Campaigns try to garner the attention of the media cover their campaigns and candidate
Political contributions
-all political money is regulated by the federal govt under the federal elections campaign act of 1971, 1974, and 1976
-goal of this post watergate legislation was to reduce the impact of money on elections and limit the influence of big donors
-in 2002 a new law was passed called the bipartisan campaign finance reform act
-individuals, PACs and parties may spend unlimited amounts of money directly advocating the election or defeat of a candidate as long as the expenditures are not coordinated with the campaign
Bipartisan campaign finance reform act
-bans soft money donations to campaign, increases amount of hard money(regulated) individuals may donate to candidates and imposes new restrictions on political advertising close to an election
- under new system, parties cannot accept "soft money" contributions for such things as party-building and get out the vote campaigns
-this money must come from individuals or PACs as hard money and be counted in the campaign finance limits
Voter canvassing includes
1. Campaign steps
2. Fundraise
3. Telephone call
Manipulate press coverage
-stage media events
-isolate candidate from the press
-positive spin on what candidate does
Campaign finance laws
FECA limit influence over public officials
Soft money
Money not covered by the federal elections campaign act
Political action committee
Represent certain groups
-corporations, labor unions, and trade
Political party contributions
Candidatrs get their money from their party
Member to candidate contributions
Inumbents who have large campaign war chests and secure seats give money to their party's candidates who need financial help
CandIdates personal contributions
Supreme court ruled in Buckley v. Valeo (1976) that no limit can be placed on candidates's own spending
- court equated spending ones own money with free speech
Public funding
-only presidential candidates are eligible for public funding
-public funds come from general tax revenues And candidates must qualify to receive them
PACs
Political action committees
Yellow journalism
Untrue, oversimplified, sensationalized, stories designed to titillate readers
Muckrakers
Original investigative reports who saw it as their job to expose real and apparent misconduct by government and business in order to force the pace of reform
- the junkie by upton Sinclair
Print press
Newspapers, periodicals, magazines, newsletters and journals
Electronic media
Television, cable, radio, and the Internet
Libel
Written deformation of character