Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
During Action potential
sodium enters the cell, then potassium goes out
the presynaptic terminal of a neuron
releases a neurotransmitter
The function of a myelin sheath
is to shorten the time required for action potentials to traverse an axon
Ionotropic effects on the neuron
result in rapid (about 1 millisecond) changes in membrane potential due to the passage of ions
The sequence of structures for the flow of neural information
is dendrite to soma to axon to terminals
The action potential
is all or none
The amplitude and velocity of an action potential
are independent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated it
A drug that is an ‘agonist’
mimics or increases the effects of a neurotransmitter.
The route from genes to their expression
is DNA to RNA to proteins.
A general function of the hypothalamus
is the regulation of homeostasis and behaviors related to survival.
if a person's basic emotions and behaviors suddenly changed
one would suspect had suffered a stroke involving the limbic system
The somatosensory cortex of the left hemisphere
will primarily respond to stimulation of areas of skin on the right side of the body.
is most associated with release of cortisol; from the adrenal gland
Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra
deteriorate in Parkinson's disease.
The hippocampus plays a major role
in learning and memory
he autonomic division of the nervous system consists of
neurons that control the heart, intestines, and other organs.
The right side of the brain
is more related to spatial abilities and “aha” answers?
The right hemisphere of the brain
is thought to be the most involved in savant syndrome?
Early studies showed that girls
mature faster than boys, develop verbal skills earlier and are conditioned to behave better than boys
Men are more
left brain dominant.
Antisocial behavior resulting from childhood abuse may be caused
by over-excitation of the limbic system
Frontal cortex and limbic system
are larger in women
Men’s brains are
10% larger than women’s brains
Women are better in judging character for
everything except for lying
There is data indicating that Abuse
actually changes structures in the brain.
Motor system deficits can involve
cranial nerves that have a motor component such as 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, and 12.
Cerebral palsy results
from damage to the corticospinal system
A neurologist uses the term upper motor neuron
as synonymous with corticospinal system
Damage to the upper motor neuron results
in contralateral spasticity if damage is above the decussation
After brain damage
a person can move the right hand but not the left.
The precentral gyrus in the right hemisphere
damage is probably involved.
Spasticity results
from damage to the corticospinal system.
The left precentral gyrus
is motor cortex, it receives touch sensations from the body, the body is organized in an orderly fashion.
A man stabbed in the back on the right side at level of the thorax
might not be able to move his right leg.
The motor program for walking
is located in the cerebellum.
Poor balance
is associated with dysfunctions of the cerebellum (i.e. cerebellar damage).
Atrophy is
an effect of damage to the lower motor neuron.
The depletion of dopamine in the substantia nigra
is related to the development of Parkinson's disease
Tremor at rest
is associated with Parkinson’s disease
an intention tremor
is associated with cerebellar disease
Cerebral palsy
results from damage to the corticospinal system.
Damage to the upper motor neuron
results in contralateral spasticity if damage is above the decussation.
All of the output of the cerebellum
is via Purkinje cells.
Most systems
cross (i.e. pass information to the opposite side of the brain).
Damage to the extrapyramidal system
results in rigidity; is often due to environmental pollution, and involves the basal ganglia.
Damage to your cerebellum
might result in a lifestyle in which you can no longer ride your bike type or play the piano, speak or write clearly.
Damage to the extrapyramidal system
results in rigidity, and is often due to environmental pollution
Damage to the lower motor neuron
results in atrophy.
Damage to the extrapyramidal system
results in rigidity, and is often due to environmental pollution
Damage to the lower motor neuron
results in atrophy.
In most humans the left hemisphere
is specialized for the control of language
An aphasia means
a loss of language ability in general.
Stroke is also called
type of stroke for which one gives tPA (tissue plasminogen activator)
type of stroke
A split brain (a section of the corpus callosum) demonstrates
that language is in the left hemisphere of the brain
Broca’s area
is in the left frontal lobe
Someone with Broca’s aphasia
has trouble speaking
Fluent aphasia
victim has difficulty comprehending language but is still able to speak smoothly, is due to damage in Wernicke’s area.
drug addiction in humans
is 50% genetic
Benefits of marijuana are
that it Alleviates pain, anxiety, fear; Prevents death of injured neurons; Suppresses vomiting; and Enhances appetite.
Marijuana is federally classified as a Schedule 1 drug--
along with heroin and LSD.
Addictive drugs produce their effect
by causing dopamine to be released
is a strong reuptake inhibitor of dopamine.
With chronic use of cocaine
receptors in the postsynaptic membrane are lost
with chronic use of cocaine there is also
Down-regulation occurs. There is mood elevation
Approximately 20 percent of the U.S. population
has used prescription drugs for non-medical reasons in their lifetimes.
The 3 mechanisms for Evolution of species are
Sources of variation; Method of selection for those characteristics that would be passed on and a mechanism for retaining changes
Mammal species last
about 2.5 million years
Our brain is similar
to that of reptiles, birds, amphibians and most mammals.
The gene (ASPM) came to light in 2002 when
a disrupted form of it was identified as the cause of microcephaly, a disease in which people are born with an abnormally small cerebral cortex.
has been under intense Darwinian pressure in the last few million years. It changed its structure 15 times since humans and chimps separated from their common ancestor.
The progressive change in the architecture of the ASPM protein over the last 18 million years
years is correlated with a steady increase in the size of the cerebral cortex. Human brain 3 x larger than would be predicted.