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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is a collective
group of ppl engaged in common activities but having minimal direct interaction
social facilitation
a process whereby the presence of others enchances the performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks (do something practiced infront of a crowd, but if you just learned it, do it alone)
mere presence theory
the proposition that the mere presejnce of others is sufficient enough to produce social facilitation effects
evaluation apprehension theory
a theory holding that the presence of others will produce social facilitaion effects only when those others are seen as potential evaluators (ppl are watching and laughing)
distraction-conflict theory
the presence of others will produce social facilitation effects when those others distract from the tast and create attentional conflict
social loafing
a group processed reduction in individual output on easy tasks where contributions are pooled. (cheer softer when in a group and louder alone)
collective effort model
theory that individuals will exert effort on a collective task to the degree that they think their individual efforts will be important, relevant, and meaningful for achieving outcomes that they value. (individuals increase their efforts to make up for social loafing)
loss of a persons sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against behavior (get lost in the group, not individual anymore linching, mob)
group polarization
the exaggeration through group discussion of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members (if most are thinking dangerous thoughts, then the rest of the group will too)
a group decision making style characterized by an excessive tendency among group members to seek concurrence (challenger... 1 person was nervous, ppl ignored him, blew up)
process loss
reduction in group performance due to obstacles created by group processes, sych as problems of coordination and motivation (ppl interfere with 1 person getting a good idea, lack of motivation-like social loafing)
escalation effect
condition in which the commitments to a failing course of action are increased to justify investments already made (bigdig, even when finished still problems, and they escalate their commitment instead of changing their idea)
transactive memory
shared system for remembering information that enables multiple people to remember information together more efficiently than they could alone (each person can remember something and put it all together)
social dilemma
situation in which a self-interested choice by everyone creates the worst outcome for everyone (what is good for one is bad for all)
prisoner's dilemma
one party must make either cooperative of competitive moves in relation to another party. (one confesses, no jail other 10 years...)
resource dilemma
social dilemmas concerning how two or more people share a limited resource (commons dilemma- if someone takes as much as they want, there will be none left) (public goods dilemma- all individuals contribute resources to a common pool)
graduated and reciprocated intension-reduction

strategy for unilateral, persistent efforts to establish trust and cooperation between opposing parties (cooperation is met with cooperation, attack with attack)
integrative agreement
negotiated resolution to a conflict in which all parties obtain outcomes that are superior to what they would havbe obtained from an equal division of the contested resources (give one girl the peel, the other the orange for juice)
need for affiliation
the desire to establish and maintain many rewarding interpersonal relationships (want social contact with others)
mere exposure effect
the more often people are exposed to a stimulus, the more positively they evaluate that stimulus (see a grape, like it more)
what is beautiful is good stereotype
belief that physically attractive individuals also possess desirable personality characteristics
matching hypothesis
ppl are attracted to others who are similar in physical appearance
mutual exchange between what we give and receive (liking those who like us)
hard to get effect
tendency to prefer people who are highly selective in their social choices over those who are more readily available (play hard to get)
social exchange theory
perspective that views people as motivated to maximize benefits and minimize costs in their relationships with others (relationships with more rewards will last longer)
equity theory
ppl are most satisfied with a relationship when the ratio between benefits and contributions is similar for both partners
exchange relationship
participants expect and desire strict reciprocity in their interactions (tit for tat, want it to always be equal, give and expect something in return)
communal relationship
participants expect and desire mutual responsiveness to each others needs (give without expecting something back)
attachment style
way a person typically interacts with significant others (style with bf/gf)
triangular theory of love
love has three basic components- passion, intimacy, and commitment- those get put into 8 subtypes
passionate love
romantic- high arousal and intense attraction
companionate love
secure, trusting, stable relationship
excitation transfer
arousal caused by one stimulus is added to arousal from a second stimulus and the combined arousal is attributed to the second stimulus (dancing w/someone may intensify a persons feelings, fanning the flames for passion
revelations about the self that a person makes to others (open up and share intimate facts about yourself to others)
prosocial behaviors
actions intended to benefit others
kin selection
preferential helping of genetic relatives, which results in the greater likelihood that genes held in common will survive (save someone who is family, animals warn others of predators)
arousal: cost-reward model
people react to emergency situations by acting in the most cost-effective way to reduce the arousal of shock and alarm (see someone hurt, we are aroused, help them so that we can feel better)
motivated by the desire to improve another's welfare
motivated by the desire to increase one's own welfare
empathy-altruism hypothesis
proposition that empathetic concern for a person in need produces an altruistic motive for helping (truly focused on how the other person is feeling)
negative state relief model
ppl help others in order to counteract their own feelings of sadness
bystander effect
presence of others inhibits of helping
pluralistic ignorance
the state in which ppl mistakenly believe that their own feelings are different from those of others, even when everyone's behavior in the same
diffusion of responsibility
belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing assistance to a person in need
audience inhibition
reluctance to help for fear of making a bad impression on observers (ppl feel embarrased in a social setting)
good mood effect
effect whereby a good mood increases behavior
social norm
general rule of conduct reflecting standards of social approval and disapproval (standards of approved or disapproved behavior)
norm of social responsibility
moral standard emphasizing that people should help those who need assistance
threat-to-self-esteem model
theory that reactions to receiving assistance depend on whether help is perceived as supportive or threatening (receiving help is self supportive,-they feel appreciated and cared for, but self-threatened when teh recipeint feels inferior and overly dependent