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97 Cards in this Set

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The Essential Self/essential self descriptors/Developmental Progression
Ask for a self description, take the first 5, then ask yourself... if you weren't "blank", would you still be you?

These descriptors become less physical (male, brown hair, blue eyes) as subject matures
Those that you cannot do without describe your essential self
Self concept clarity and gender and cross-culture differences
the extent to which self-beleifs are
-clearly and confidently defined
-internally consistent

Cross-culture differences:
Canadian score 38-42 (high)
Japanese score 34-32
Neisser's 5 kinds of self knowledge
Perceptual or ecological: Sense of self in the physical environment
-can alter with drugs
Interactional (interpersonal): the social experience... "I-ness"
Private: Thoughts, feelings, fantasies
-hard to tap
Narrative or extended: memories of your past
Conceptual: Includes all of the above
-focus of much work in personality
James' "I" and "me"
"I": The self as a knower/experiencer
-agency: I do, I act
-uniqueness: I, and only I, am who I am
-continuity: I was yesterday, I am today, I will be tomorrow
-meta-awareness: I am aware of my own awareness

"Me": The self as known/experienced... objective
-material me: my body, my possesions
-social me: People around me, my duties and my personality
-spiritual self: my feelings and thoughts (equivilant to neisser's private self
Self-esteem: General vs. Domain specific
general - general self esteem

Domain Specific - ... I'm really good at baseball but I suck at math

Many argue that there is no consistent sex, race, ethnic or SES diffreence in self-esteem
Development of the self from infancy
0-3 monthes: unlearned attraction to images of others - especially infants

3-8 mo: Contingency cues. Preference to images that are contingent (real-time)

8-15 mo: Can distinguish video tapes of self from others (imitate self: smile, approach others)

15 mo on: Passes the rouge test
Stern: how language divides itself
Language puts limitations on how you describe yourself... you can't really describe everything about yourself in words
The "me" and the "I" of early childhood
3-7 years:

Physical - more important
Active: Describe themselves in terms of routine activities
Social: not much mention of others
Psychological: little mention of psychological self but will differential when probed

-Uniqueness and Continuity based primarily on bodily attributes
Saying "I" in children
from 2-5, 50% of "I" statements are psychological
volition: I want
cognition: I think
Negative -
50% use of can't
75% use of I don't know

These are fleeting and may not be part of the self-concept, but they could be if repeated often enough
Imaginary friend, private self
Boys: Hero
^low competence of self, high of friend but relatively close ratings

Girls: Something to nurture
^high competence rating of self, low rating of friend
Development of self throught early and middle childhood
Early Childhood - Mostly physical description of self

Late Childhood (8-12)
The "me"-
-Physical: Less prominent
-Active: Less specific... more general "I play sports!"
Social: Comparisons with others... membership in groups or family
Psychological: More prevailent and more distinct from physical

The "I"-
Uniqueness + continuity based increasingly on psychological attributes
adolescent self concept
-formal operational thought
-hypothetical/what-if self... ideal self
-greater tendency to generalize "if I'm good at math and I'm good at chemistry, I must be very bright."
-sensative to integration: mean to parents, nice to friends... doesn't like discrepency
-self-monitoring/self-awareness: adelescent egocentricity and imaginary audience
Loevinger's model of ego development (aspects, not actual model)
-very cognitive... ego as master synthesizer
-stage theory (his model)... higher=better
-General movement - from egocentric and impulsive ego to flexible, internalized ego
-development associated with Openness
-Not everyone gets to the top: Conscientiousness stage most common in early adulthood
Loevinger's model
Ego's job= "search for coherent meaning in experience"
-how you make the world make sense
Ego's domains:
-impulse control (how you control yourself)
-interpersonal mode (how you relate to others)
-conscious preoccupations (what you think about)
Loevinger's Stages of Ego maturity
Impulsive (child-like, dependent)

Self-protective (play by the rules... sort of, self-centered)

Conformist (be like others, follow the rules)

Self-aware: typical female model... (not from notes). feeling focused interations, distinction between self and group, self conscious and loneliness salient

Conscientious: self-evaluated standards (vs. community standards), self-critical in interactions, think about own motives, traits... acheivements

Individualistic: Just fricken amazing
Sentence completion
Test for loevinger's stages... the nature of your answer reflects what stage you're in
Looking glass self and the Generalized other
Looking glass: The sense you have of how other people see you

gen. Other: the "audience" you think is watching you
the extent to which a person tends to modify his behavior in response to external demands and contingencies

consistency accross situations is low for people high in self-monitering

In terms of traits, self-monitering act as a MODERATOR VARIABLE
Self-monitoring and sex
People high in self-monitoring have more uncommitted/unattached sexual relationships and more sexual partners... one night stands
Possible selves
2 Functions
-an incentive... a self to strive for
-self-evaluation... a standard against whch to make judgements
-actual self: who you are
-ideal self: who you'd like to be
-ought self: who you should be
-your own
Affect associated with discrepencies
actual vs. self-ideal
-dejection, dissappointment, dissatisfaction

actual vs. other-ideal
-shame, embarassment

actual vs. self-ought

actual vs. other-ought
Origins of self discrepancy
your oughts and ideals (which may be the source of the discrepancies... are guided by early behavior of parents

-parents who bemoan their own shortcomings "you can do what i never did!"
-conditions of worth
-parents who are overly strict, critical and punitive
-parents who are over-controlling in order to make the child they want
Availibility, accessability, Implications for therapy
availibility: You have to actually be AWARE of the discrepancy for it to have an effect on you

accessability: How often you tap that discrepancy

Implications for therapy:
-work to change self actual self concept to be less discrepant
-change the self-guides by questioning the ligitimacy of the ought or idealized self
-change accessability by avoiding situation which brings out discrepancy
undesired self
what you don't want to be
-often based on real experience
-more concrete than ideal self

Therefore, it's better to be far from your undesired self than to be close to your idea self... more positive affect
Gender differences for worst self
males more defensive... 30% worst self when dead (0% for females)

women... 50% identify worst self involving not getting along with family member

also women... 90% worst self when involved in a relationship (30% for males)
self with others
-can be very the same or very different
-part of your overall social self
-can relate to self-monitoring
-can begin to explain inconsistency accross situations
-when combined with idea/ought, best and worst selves, offers explanation for felt emotions
Organization of selves
self-concept compartmentalization (SCC) -
-separate good from bad and repress the bad
-the more separate, the better for your affect

Self-concept differentiation theory (SCD)
-fragmented: how different are all your selves
-the more fragmented... the worse you feel
Erikson: Overview vs. freud
-notion of life-span personality development
-important, dramatic events/incidents
-identity "Who am I?" is the key question
-acheiving identity is psychological acheivement
-lives are legacies for coming generations

Difference between erikson and freud – pessimism v. optimism
Erikson – retrospective determinism… you contstruct yourself retrospectively… freud is just determinism
triple bookkeeping
-somatic - Body

These are the 3 processes of organization the human being uses to maintain the self
Erikson's stages... questions asked
-Basic trust v. mistrust
How can I be secure?

-autonomy v. shame/doubt
How can I be independent

-initiative v. guilt
how can I be powerful?

-industry v. inferiority
how can I be good?

-identity v. role confusion
Who am I?
-not just a self-definition, but a social self-definition... recognized by others
Identity statuses (Marcia)
from exploration to committment:

-Identity diffusion: haven't begun to look yet

-Foreclosure: quick look, then choose

-Moratorium: Still looking

-Identity achivement: took a full look and then found something
Empirical evidence for identity content and constraints
content: religious, political beliefs, career goals

contraints: Structural requirements (the community)

interviews with 30 young, orthodox jews
Erikson's Chart - vertical
Prerequisites! for Identity
-unipolarity (trust)
"I am basically good"
-bipolarity (autonomy)
"I can relate to others"
-play identification (initiative)
"I can play at many things"
-work identification (industry)
"I can be/do many things"
Erikson's Chart - horizontal
Repeats! You repeat all the stages in a modified way at adelescence
Identity formation
-Through childhood, many "identities"
-a normative crisis
-reject/select certain identities (retrospective determinism
-social influences
-final configureation = triple bookkeeping
Identity styles
Information orientation - What could I be?

Normative orientation - what should I be?

diffuse/avoident orientation - I don't want to be anything
Identity styles and well-being
-not much difference between normative and information oriented
-diffuse/avoidand negatively associated with well-being
-committment positively associated
identities de novo
like paul... create a new identity from nothing
negative identity
rather be someone bad than be no one at all
Identity and traits
identity acheivment
-low N, high C and E
-Low O
-High N, Low C

High N, Low C, low A
Josselson's research
longitudinal qualitative study of 30 women in college

-pathmakers (acheivement)
-guardians (foreclosure)hadn't committed
-searchers (moratorium)
-Drifters (diffusion)
"ideal trejectory" Identity and intimacy
The ideal... what you're supposed to do it find your identity and THEN find intimacy... but many women do it backwards
Intimacy status
intimate (committed/equal) = acheivement

merger (committed/dominating) = foreclosure

preintimate (contact/no committment) = mixed

stereotyped (superficial contact) = mixed

isolate (little contact)= diffusion... but in males only
gender and intimacy/identity relationship
women may depend less on occupation and career factors for self identity and base it more on relatioships
-forecloser can be adaptive for women
-women score higher in intimacy
-correllation higher between intimacy and identity in women
Social dating goals scale
why you date... intimacy or identity
Domains of generativity
Agency/comunion reasons
-biological: vertility v. to physically nurture
-parental: child in my own image v. child to be who she wants to be
-technical: do it my way v. do it the right way as well as you can
-cultural: drawing attention to the self v. drawing attention to the group/cause
changes in family affecting generativity
-contraceptive revolution
-extention of life expectancy
-childfree years
-general segregation
Empirical findings about generativity
86 men followed from college to mid 50's

predictors that they would be generative later in life:
-warm family environment
-absence of parental dicipline problems
-mentor relationship
-good peer relationships
-years of education or heath were not predictors

Geometric shape test... people tell stories
Erikson's measure, gender differences
Females score higher in intimacy, correllation with identity

Males score higher in autonomy, initiative, industry
life review and ego integrity
looking back and settling accounts

and accepting the good and the bad
life review and acceptance data
people didn't actually have to review to accept... about 1/2 didn't review and accepted
case studies
ideographic approach
-very very small sample
-could be about situations, not just people
-based on soundness of analysis
-opportunity to discover... induction
-can provide counter-evidence to existing theory
Case study... actually standards
-be truthful and accurate
-be clear in your objective
-be professional and respectful
-recognize context
-evaluate your study in terms of its original objective
write clearly, objectively... using ordinary language
writing a biography that systematically uses a psychological (personality) theory

-using psychology to explain life

Freud's prosriptions
-avoid arguments built on a single clue
-avoid pathographizing or idealizing the subject
-avoid drawing conclusions from inadequate data

...but he violated all of these
Freud's psychobiography of da vinci
suckled by a vulture's tail... phallis... homosexuality.. vulture thought to be able to impregnate themselves... da vinci like christ
salience markers (letting the data speak for itself)
Primacy - what comes first

Frequency - appears often

Uniqueness - one of a kind events

Negation - Denying importance

Emphasis - over, under, misplaced

Omission - what's left out, especially affect

Error-distortion - freudian slips

Isolation - what stands alone, doesn't fit

incompletion - life story unfinished
Counter players
Erikson's term used to describe how one individual's life intersects with another in important ways can't understand one without understanding the other
Interpretive and interpersonal motives for stories
Interpretive - for the self
-to see purpose in life
-to put behavior in a moral context
-to affirm self worth

Interpersonal - relating to others
-to obtain rewards (sympathy, respect)
-to validate your identity
-to inform others (esp. parents and children)
-to attract others
Historical/scientific v. narrative truth
historical truth - what really happened... the facts

narrative - how you saw and makes sense of it
Characteristics of false stories
-less first person singulars
-negative language
-less complex (cause you have to make it up)
-more concrete... less evaluative
Person as a story... hermeneutics
The study and interp. of texts... extended to the study and interp. of life stories
Paradigmatic v. Narrative mode
What really happened


what makes a good story... a good interpretation
-internally coherant
-embody closure
-aesthetically pleasing
annals, chronicles (these are pre-stories
annals = listing events in chrono order

chronicles = the telling of events in a chrono order
story grammar
the rules that structure a well-made story... beginning, middle, end... and the end is in sight from the very beginning... They have an emphasis on PROBLEM SOLVING
High-point analysis
events that leave up to points... then resolved
-emphasis on:
Reference (what happened)
Evaluation (how you felt about it)
stories and healing/health: Pennebaker's research
telling full stories about traumatic experiences improves health over time
In stories there was:
-more disclosure of positive emotions, moderate neg.
-increased use of causal thinking
-story is coherant and finite (the "closed the book")
Freud: interpretation
nothing is as it appears to be... you have to find the hidden (latent) meaning
Dreams - manifest and latent
dreams are a primary process but their meaning is hidden so we are not always having nightmares... this coding, freud calls DREAMWORK

Manifest via:
-secondary revision (when you're telling it, you realize something new... I hadn't noticed... but now I notice) a more coherant narrative
Day residue
You incorporate parts of your day into the dream
Freud's suggestions for dream interpretation
-focus on storyline
-look for day's residue
-look at striking aspect of the dream... "special clarity and sensory strength"
Freud's interp of mistakes
since the world is determined... no mistakes... interpret!
screened memories
m and n memory example... why does the m have an extra thing? Freud would say he's actually wondering why HE has an extra thing because his aunt doesn't and basically, he wants her sexually.

Basically, bad, primary process stuff is hidden in memories
Freud's theory of humor
wit - getting out aggression + sex

humor propre - displacement
Jung's approach to dreams
-symbol as metaphore v. specific (of freud)
-amplification v. association (freud)
-dreams teach, not conceal
-thought dreams could tell the future
Archetypal dreams
markedly bizarre... vivid, dramatic. They come from the collective unconscious he says
dreams: activation synthesis model
it's all just neurons... meaningless
Adler - early memories
early memories reflect style of life
-memories may not even be real
motives behind storied life
-strive for superiority
-social interest
-fictional finalism
Tomkin's theory: affect and emotions
affects - more abstract
basic emotions - we know the facial expressions and they're normally about something

His theory is that your affect affects your behavoir... positive affect rewards and neg. punishes
scenes and scripts
scene- time with one affect and one object

scripts connect scenes
-help you respond to future scenes
-are more self-valiating than self-fulfilling
-organize and give meaning
transient and habitual scenes, scripts
transient - no meaning, unscripted, make up most of our life in time

habitual - routine

scripted - connect scenes in a meaningful way
Psychological magnification
process of connecting scenes into scripts... affect is mostly to blame... "hey, I really want to make this better" or "oh crap, here I go again... failure script
nuclear scene and script
scene - good things went bad, once

script - expect bad
committment script
if I work hard, good things will happen

originate from a childhood where bad turned good, promise turned good, etc.
sedative, preaddiction, addiction scripts
sedative - use when you feel bad

preaddictive - you begin to anticipate and use before

addictive - you use for it's own sake and the bad you feel from not using is worse then the bad you felt before
positive affect savoring script
more positive than negative affect

paul, "I felt happy, I wanted to add sex to it"
Life story genres (narrative tone)
comedy - ordinary people coming together, seeking simple pleasures and avoiding pain
Motive: high intimacy

romance - adventure!
Motives: high power

tragedy - an extrodinary victim pursued by darker side
No correllation w/ motives

irony - ordinary person confused by life's mysteries
Motives: low power
Origins of life story
raw material from childhood
personal fable
starts in adolescnce
Narrative imagery
like a movie set... the "feel" of the story
safe warm hostile, cold, etc.
Theme (motivation)
what you want and what you strive for
idealogical setting
beleifs... tend not to change much
nuclear episodes
turning points (can seem insignificant at the time)
imagos, anti-imago
imago - relates to your idealized self and you ought self
anti- the opposite