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138 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The smallest part independently functioning unit in the structure of an organism
Gives support to the plant cell
cell wall
are flexible barriers that regulate the flow of material in and out of cells; are said to have selective permeability - which means they are choosy about what they allow to pass through them.
cell membrane
It is responsible for maintaining the shape and structure of the cell.
is basically a kind of biological soup or stew. The organelles form the chunky part, and water makes up most of the stock! Proteins, carbohydrates, and fats act as thickeners; most cellular activity occurs here
A large, membrane-bound, usually spherical protoplasmic structure within a living cell, containing the cell's hereditary material and controlling its metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
Normal cell division
Multicellular organisms that obtain food from their environments
All have systems that allow them to move at some point in their life
Ex. Sponge larva are motile, adults are sessile
Most reproduce sexually
“lower” forms do both sexual and asexual; Generally placed into 2 groups-without backbones and with backbones
Animal Kingdom
multicellular, produce own food through photosynthesis, cells surrounded by cell wall, sexual and aesexual reproduction
Plant Kingdom
the evaporation of water into the atmosphere from the leaves and stems of plants.
Catabolic process that extracts energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels with O2
Any of a group of green pigments that are found in the chloroplasts of plants and in other photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria
Heterotrophic, multicellular and unicellular, non motile, eukaryotic cell
Four major phylums
Truffles, morels, yeast
Bread mold
Penicillin, cheese molds
Seed bearing plants into those without flowers
those with flowers
H2O + CO2 + light  Sugar (C6H12O6) + O2
Large surface area = solar panels
Any of various plants, such as the ferns and seed-bearing plants, in which the phloem transports sugar and the xylem transports water and salts
vascular plant
includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
nonvascular plant
The turning or bending movement of an organism or a part toward or away from an external stimulus, such as light, heat, or gravity.
(all in phylum chordata, subphylum vertebrata)
Animals with backbones
Includes fishes, frogs, snakes, birds, and mammals
(no subkingdom)
Animals without backbones
Include sponges, jellyfishes, starfishes, worms, mollusks, lobsters, spiders, and insects
A large class of warm-blooded vertebrates containing animals characterized by mammary glands, a body covering of hair, three ossicles in the middle ear, a muscular diaphragm separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities, red blood cells without nuclei, and embryonic development in the allantois and amnion.
Mostly segmented roundworms
Possess well-defined nervous system, digestive system
Examples: earthworm, leech, bristle worm
About 6,500 species
Shellfish and snails; usually possess soft, unsegmented bodies with exterior shells made of calcium carbonate, muscular foot, radula
Well-developed nervous, digestive, and circulatory systems, excretory system
Examples: oyster, clam, mussel, snail, octopus, and squid
About 70,000 species
Animals having segmented bodies with distinct regions
Possess hard, jointed exoskeleton
Bilaterally symmetrical with pairs of movable, jointed appendages
Examples: lobster, crab, crayfish, spider, insects
About 750,000 species
5 classes
A comprehensive group equivalent to the true...exclusive of the sponges. They are so named from presence of stinging cells in the tissues.
The single order of the mammalian infraclass Metatheria, characterized by the presence of a marsupium in the female.
Marine animals
Possess internal calcium carbonate skeletons that are often spined
Tube feet and water vascular system
Possess radial symmetry (pentameral)
Examples: starfish, sea urchin, sanddollar
Physical trait – hair color etc
Cannot be changed
inherited trait
Learning to Ignore – certain animals are not a threat
Copying – baby birds finding food
Learning from Experience – mouse in a maze
Using two unrelated things - dog training
learned behavior
An inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli
ex. PP
dominant genes
ex. pp
recessive genes
A property that may have different values in various cases.
A testable relationship between an independent and dependent variable (if, then)
what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment.
Manipulated or dependent variable
is a factor that can be varied or manipulated in an experiment (e.g. time, temperature, concentration, etc). It is usually what will affect the other variable.
Responding or independent variable
means managing the conditions of an investigation
Control or constant variable
has variables,can be measured; is the process that encompasses all of the basic and integrated processes
Using one or more senses to describe an object or phenomena; Use measurement to enhance observations
Use hand lenses, microscopes and telescopes to add detail
A unit of matter, the smallest unit of an element, having all the characteristics of that element and consisting of a dense, central, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a system of electrons
The basic building block of the compound
Center of the atom is called the...
are heavy particles having no electrical charge; makes up the atoms' mass
are heavy particles with a positive electrical charge; make up the atoms' mass
circle around the nucleus in outer rings or shells; are light particles with a negative electrical charge
_____ _____of an element is the mass of its protons plus the mass of its neutrons
atomic mass
____ ____ of an element is the number of protons it contains
atomic number
elements are arranged here
periodic table
When atoms that tend to lose electrons easily are near atoms that tend to gain them easily, an exchange takes place
The atom that loses electrons becomes positively charged and the atom that gains electrons becomes negatively charge
Unlike charges attract, so the two atoms, now ions, are attracted to each other and joined by the electrical forces in an ___ ___
ionic bonding
Some atoms share electrons with other atoms rather than gain or lose them
This will cause the atoms to join in a ____ ____
covalent bonding
Solid-definite shape and definite volume
ex. Wood, plastic, metal, ice, wax
Takes shape of its container and definite volume
ex. Water, alcohol, oil, detergent
Takes shape of its container and no definite volume
ex. Oxygen, vapor, carbon dioxide, neon
is a substance made up of two or more elements formed by a chemical reaction that results in substances different from the original substances; the basic building block is the molecule
Add or remove heat energy
Avoid the use of the word “cool”, instead use “loose energy”
physical change
Any or all of these signs:
Color change
Heat is given off or absorbed
Light is given off
Gas or precipitate (new solid)
There is something different
chemical change
occurs when substances are mixed together without any chemical reaction (heat, light, color change, etc.)
solute (kool-aid) is dissolved in solvent (water)
Homogenous because mixture is the same though out)
Suspensions- does not dissolve completely
oil and vinegar
Heterogeneous because it is not the same through out
Wind drag giving rise to forces and wear on buildings and other structures
air resistance
energy of motion
kinetic energy
energy of position
potential energy
is a measure of how much material is in an object
is a measure of the gravitational force exerted on that material in a gravitational field
Energy released when atoms split or join
Brought about not by an ordinary chemical change but by a change in the nucleus of the atom

ex. Atomic bomb, Nuclear reactor, Stars
nuclear energy
Energy of moving molecules
Molecules are always moving
Absolute Zero – theoretical
thermal energy
Energy released by chemical change
Metabolic processes
chemical energy
The energy transmitted from the Sun.
solar energy
is constant in a system that experiences no dissipative forces such as friction or air resistance. For example, a swinging pendulum that experiences only gravitation has greatest KE and least PE at the lowest point on the path of its swing, where its speed is greatest and its height least. It has least KE and greatest PE at the extremities of its swing, where its speed is zero and its height is greatest. As it moves, energy is continuously passing back and forth between the two forms.
mechanical energy
The product of a force exerted on an object and the distance through which it moves
An expression of the multiplication of force by a machine; the ratio of the resistance overcome to the effort applied
mechanical advantage
The work (force X distance) applied to a machine
The work (force X distance) produced by a machine
is the force we apply
(change in velocity) of an object is directly related to the force exerted upon the object; (change in velocity) of an object is inversely related to the mass of the object
this may increase (acceleration) or decrease (deceleration)
is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
The rate or a measure of the rate of motion, especially:
Distance traveled divided by the time of travel.
The limit of this quotient as the time of travel becomes vanishingly small; the first derivative of distance with respect to time.
The magnitude of a velocity.
is the force we overcome (friction, gravity)
The natural force of attraction exerted by a celestial body, such as Earth, upon objects at or near its surface, tending to draw them toward the center of the body.
incorrectly called weightlessness, in context with the Space Shuttle
The rubbing of one object or surface against another
law of motion, states that
An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by some outside force
An object in motion will continue in motion in a straight line and at a constant velocity unless acted upon by some outside force
It is sometimes called the Law of Inertia
Newton's 1st Law
The velocity may increase (acceleration) or decrease (deceleration)
The size of the force and the amount of the mass determine the rate of acceleration of the object
Newton's 2nd Law
states that
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction; No force may be exerted upon any body that does not affect a 2nd body
Every change in the motion of 1 body produces a change in the motion of, or at least a stress upon, some other body
A man pushes upon a wall, and the wall pushes upon the man
Newton's 3rd Law
The tendency of a body to resist acceleration; the tendency of a body at rest to remain at rest or of a body in straight line motion to stay in motion in a straight line unless acted on by an outside force
Changes the direction of the force
The size of the wheel can change the force
Adding teeth makes it a gear
wheel and axel
Fulcrum, force, load
Changes the direction of the force
Changes in the placement of the fulcrum increases the output
EX: bat, fishing rod, broom, see saw, hammer
An inclined plane rolled up
Spreads the force over a longer distance
Changes the direction of the force; additional ones can increase the force
The transmission or conveying of something through a medium or passage, especially the transmission of electric charge or heat through a conducting medium without perceptible motion of the medium itself.
Heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from one region to another.
Fluid motion caused by an external force such as gravity.
Emission and propagation and emission of energy in the form of rays or waves.
Energy radiated or transmitted as rays, waves, in the form of particles.
Light bends when it moves from one kind of matter to another
Air to water
Air to glass
light refraction
The distance between the compression waves is called a _________
The size depends on how fast the generating object vibrates and how fast the wave moves through the air
Red objects absorb all colors except red
Black objects reflect no color
White objects reflect all colors
Breaks light into the visible spectrum
White light is actually made up of all colors
spreads light rays apart
concave lens
bring light rays together
convex lens
makes images larger, often upside down
concave mirror
makes images smaller
convex mirror
expands not in just 2 dimensions, like a wave on the surface of the pond, but in 3 dimensions, like an expanding globe-shaped balloon; some that strike a surface may be so strong that they travel through the object struck – transmitted; some are absorbed – acoustical tile, carpet, soft, bumpy
sound wave
Sound is caused by this
Reflected sound waves that can be distinguished from the original sound are known as ____
is the number of waves that pass a given point in a given time and is usually expresses as the number of vibrations per second
the highness or lowness of the sound
Depends on the number of complete vibrations that the vibrating object makes in 1 second
the loudness of sound- measured in decibels
The amount of energy contained in a wave is interpreted by our ears as the loudness or softness of a sound
the mixture of overtones that gives a sound source its distinguishing characteristics
The flow of electrons through a circuit
a path provided by a conductor that enables electrons with a great deal of energy to leave a source of energy (generator, battery, etc.), move through the conductor (a wire), lose some energy due to resistance (a light bulb), and end in an electron sink or an acceptor of electrons; A path or group of interconnected paths capable of carrying electric currents. An arrangement of one or more complete, closed paths for electron flow.
One light goes out, all go out
Bulbs becomes dimmer as lights are added
series circuit
One light goes out, the rest remain on
Bulbs remain same brightness as more are added
parallel circuit
Of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0° and the boiling point as 100° under normal atmospheric pressure.
celsius scale
A temperature scale; the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (°F) is the sum of 32 plus &frac95; the temperature in degrees Celsius; water at 1 atmosphere (101,325 pascals) pressure freezes very near 32°F and boils very near 212°F.
fahrenheit scale
describe the feeding relationships between species in an ecological community. They graphically represent the transfer of material and energy from one species to another within an ecosystem.
food chain
Help dead plants and animals to rot
Fungus, mold, lichen, worms, ants, termites, etc
Eat animals that are already dead
Garbage collectors
Green plants, parts of plants, seeds, nectar etc
Use energy from the sun to make food
is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. Aka heterotroph
organisms that kill and consume animals or prey
are animals attacked and eaten by other animals
animals that eat plants
ex. Some birds, insects, fish, etc
animals that eat primary consumers – mammals: pointed tearing teeth
animals that eat both producers and primary consumers- mammals: biting and grinding teeth
one organism benefits while the other is largely unaffected
Remora and shark
Bird and tree
Sea anemone and clown fish
a relationship that benefits both
Rhino and tick bird
Butterfly and flower
-parasite obtains food directly from other living organisms
Leech, tick, tapeworm
Relationships between organisms
Changes in the nature of a biotic community occurring over a long period of time that are due to changes of geography are called ____
four trophic levels
Energy pyramid
extends the food chain concept from a simple linear pathway to a complex network of interactions
food web
Animals use oxygen to burn food in their bodies and release carbon dioxide which is used by plants in photosynthesis and then plants release oxygen
carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle
Atmosphere 80% nitrogen
Bacteria in the roots of some plants fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and other bacteria break down nitrogen and return it to the atmosphere
Nitrogen is also recycled between plants, animals, and the soil
nitrogen cycle
In photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
Animals eat plants, burn food, and release carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere through respiration
Animals and plants die and decay and also return carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere
carbon cycle
Every living thing needs water
Through evaporation, huge amounts of water are transferred from lakes and oceans to the atmosphere
Water condenses in the atmosphere
The water returns to the Earth as precipitation
Plants absorb water for photosynthesis and return water to the atmosphere through transpiration
Animals get water by drinking it and by eating plants and return water to the atmosphere through their skin and respiratory systems
The available supply of water is constantly being recycled to support life
water cycle