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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What characteristics do all Ciliophorans have in common? 6 of them.
-all have cilia
-all have cytostome
-all have 2 nuclei, a micro and a macro
-cell division is always transverse to the lines of cilia
-sexual reproduction does not involve the production of free gametes
-majority of ciliates are sessile and in colonial forms
Where does Paramecium caudatum live?
-lives in freshwater habitats, especially if they contain abundant bacteria on which it feeds
What is the Pellicle?

What is it made of? 6 of them
-the pellicle is the firm yet flexible outer covering of Paramecium caudatum

Made of
What is the vestibule?
-the preoral chamber
-has simple cilia
What is the Buccal cavity?
-follows the vestibule
-has cilia modified into an undulating membrane which helps move food into the mouth
What is the cytostome?
-a fancy word for mouth
What is the cytopharynx?
-the tubular channel that food enters
-penetrates into the endoplasm
-food items are packed into food vacuoles at the base of the cytopharynx
What is the Cytopyge?
-the anal opening located at the posterior end of the organism, same side sa the oral groove
How do Paramecium caudatum eat?
-undulating membrane moves food into buccal cavity, into cytostome, into cytopharynx and gets packed into food vacuoles
-food vac. are free to float around in body, delivering nutrients
-shits through the cytopyge

**Digestion is intracellular**
What's the function of the macronucleus?
-main organelle for normal metabolism
-has several nucleoli with RNA
What's the function of micronucleus?
-produces macronucleus
-stores the genetic material
-is responsible for genetic exchange during sexual reproduction
How do Paramecium reproduce asexually?
-divides transversely
-micronucleus divides mitotically with one of the daughter nuclei migrating to each of the new cells
-macronucleus is pulled apart into 2 pieces
How do Paramecium reproduce sexually?
-by a process called CONJUGATION
-2 individuals lie along side each other with their oral grooves touching
-a protoplasmic bridge forms between them and they exchange micronuclei
-micronuclei undergo several divisions
-macronuclei disintegrates and is later reformed from micronuclei
List some other ciliates.