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32 Cards in this Set

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Toxoplasma gondii are mostly asymptomatic/symptomatic?

name 2 exceptions are? mostly affect?
asymptomatic

1)congenital infections - eye problems in adolescence

2)immunocompromised patients - brain
Toxoplasma gondii definitive host?
Cat

definitive host - sexually multipy in
Two ways to be infected with Toxoplasma gondii?
1) handling cat litter

2) eating udercooked meat
Diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii almost always?
Serological
Diarrhea with unknown cause could be?
Cryptosporidium
Transmission of Cryptosporidium?
Fecal-oral..you have to ingest feces somehow

not like toxo where you can get it from eating tissue from infected orgnism
How many oocysts do you need to be infected with Cryptosporidium?

Easy or hard to get rid of?
Very FEW

Unbelieveable hard to kill
Many outbreaks of Cryptosporidium come from?
Drinking contaminated water and Improper food handling
Clinical picture of Cryptosporidium?
Profuse WATERY DIARRHEA w/ NO BLOOD in stool

-complications include abdominal cramps, nausea, weight loss & vomiting

-can be much more severe in immunocompromised patients
What protozoan is physically described as having a Bi-lobed nuclues & 4 pairs of flagella?
Giardia lamblia
Giardia lamblia's virulence factor for epithelial attachment?
Adnesive disc
Type of transmission for Giardia lamblia?
Fecal-oral transmission
Diagnosis for Cryptosporidium?
Detection of oocyst in stool samples
Giardia lamblia transmitted by?
Infected water sources

Beaver shit fever
Does Cryptosporidium or Giardia lamblia penetrate the intestinal wall and spread?
No
Describe the clinical picture for Acute giardiasis

What may be developed with Chronic giardiasis?
EXPLOSIVE FOUL SMELLING DIARRHEA - NO BLOOD

Lactose intolerance
Severe cause of diarrhea worldwide is?
Entamoeba histolytica
Intestinal amebiasis
Entamoeba histolytica adhere's to coonic epithelium and invades the intestinal mucosa

Kill epithelial cells, leading to FLASK-SHAPED ULCER and SPREADING lateral
Key clinical sign of Entamoeba histolytica
BLOOD IN STOOL
Invasive extra-intestinal emebiasis
Entamoeba histolytica get past intestines, disseminate via bloodstream and form ulcers/abscesses in liver - HEPATOMEGALY

later spread to lung = BLOOD in SPUTUM
Entamoeba histolytica Clinical presentation?
Severe diarrhea with blood, enlarged live, and blood in sputum
Flagellagted protozoan spread by Sandfly?
Leishmania

-Sandlfly regurgitates parasites into wound similar to Yersinia Pestis
Leishmania reside where in hosts?
MACROPHAGES

Leishmania multiply until macrophage lyses and taken up by other macrophages
3 Types of Leishmania Diseases
1) Cutaneaous Leishmaniasis - most common

2) Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis - after cutaneous bite, spread via bloodstream/lymphatic tissue to mucosa of nose or moouth causing Destruction of Mucous Membranes! - NASAL SEPTUM PERFORATIONS

3) Visceral Leishmaniasis (aka KALA-AZAR) - SPLENOMEGALY & Wasting Syndrome
Leishmania braziliensis
Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis
Leishmania donovani
Visceral Leishmaniasis
Leishmania chagasi
Visceral Leishmaniasis
Trypanosoma cruzi causes?
Chagas Disease
Trypanosoma cruzi's vector? they spread parasite by?
Triatomine bug (aka rejuviiid bugs aka Kissing bugs)

DEFECATION in wound
Acute phase of Chagas Disease characterized by?

Chronic phase of Chagas Disease characterized by?
Fever & mild hepatosplenomegaly

CARDIOMYOPATHY - Cardiomegaly & CHF
Protozoas transmitted Fecal-orally? (4)
1) Toxoplasma Gondii

2) Cryptosporidium

3) Giardia lamblia

4) Entamoeba histolytica
Protozoas transmitted by vector? (2)
1) Leishmania

2) Trypanosoma cruzi