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42 Cards in this Set

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Kingdom Protista
unicellular or simple multicellular organisms
Protozoa
unicellular animal-like heterotrophic protists including amoebas, cilliates and flagellates
Metazoa
multicellular animals of the Kingdom Animalia
saprozoic
feeding on decaying or dead matter
holozoic
feeding on living bacteria or other Protists
Protozoa division is by a process of fission. The three types are:
Binary fission
Bidding
Schizogony
True or False
Protozoa reproduce sexually.
True, but protozoa reproduce both sexually & asexually. The asexual form is more common
True or False
Most protozoa are free-living organisms
True, but many are important parasites as well
Binary fission
division which produces two equal sized daughter cells
Budding
division which produces unequal daughter cells
Schizogony
division by multiple fission which produces numerous daughter cells
Encystment
cysts are used to survive adverse conditions or life cycle
Phylum Flagellata
mostly commensal or parasitic (holozoic or saprozoic) protozoa which have one or more flagella at some stage. some are free-living
Trypanosomes [Discicristates]
protozoa distinguished by having only a single anterior flagella
Trypanosomes are ____ parasites in Vertebrates and ___ parasites in Invertebrates
blood; gut
The single anterior flagellum of a trypanosome...
runs along the cell and raises the pellicle into an undulating membrane
Pellicle
a thin layer supporting the cell membrane in trypanosomes; associated with flagella
Trypanosomes have a _____ phase in the life cycle
Amoeboid (amastigote)
Kinetoplast
DNA-containing organelle located near the basal body which is part of the mitochondrial system in trypanosomes
Trypanosomiasis
African Sleeping Sickness caused by one of two trypanosome parasites
The two species involved in African Sleeping Sickness are:
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (west & central) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (east and central)
Tsetse fly (Glossina)
the intermediate host or vector for trypanosomiasis; a large bodied fly related to the hose fly (Muscidae)
Two significant natural groups of Tsetse flies:
both groups breed in forest regions
Palpalis group - found (feed) in riverine forests
Morsitans group - found (feed) in dry savanna woodland
Insecticide used to control Tsetse fly populations
Organochlorines like DDT and dieldrin; synthetic pyrethroids
How does the trypanosome infect a human?
Tsetse fly with infected salivary glands will transfer the parasite upon biting a human. The trypanosomes will then spread to the lymph nodes and blood stream followed by the cerebrospinal fluid in the brain.
Symptoms of African Sleeping Sickness
lethargy, coma and eventual death
T. b. gambiense
causes a chronic disease which may last several years
T. b. rhodesiense
rapid toxicity of the blood stages
Effective treatment at early stages of infection of African Sleeping Sickness
Chemotherapy [Suramin]
American Trypanosomiasis - Trypanosoma cruzi
Chagas disease in which the vector is a "kissing" bug of the genus Triatoma or Rhodinus
Chagas disease is transmitted through...
the big faeces or may enter the blood via the conjunctiva of the eye
Symptoms of Chagas disease
may manifest by a swollen eye at the site of infection then migrate to the muscle (slowly destroyed) and lymph nodes; toxins released cause fever
Chagas disease treatment
there is no effective treatment for the chronic infections; especially if the heart muscle is attacked
Assassin Bugs - Reduviidae family
bugs associated with chagas disease; are Hemipterous insects which prey on other insects
two species of assassin bugs which carry trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)
Triatoma infestans & Rhodnius prolixus
name several flagellates which live symbiotically in humans
Giardia lamblia, Trichomonads
Giardia lamblia
flagellate with comical face-like appearance due to bilateral symmetry (2 nuclei, 8 flagella); axostyle structure; infection results from fecal contamination; weakly pathogenic (asymptomatic) cysts are produced in the upper small intestine
Giardiasis
disease causes by Giardia lamblia which cause mostly gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting and cramps)
Trichomonads
pear-shaped flagellate (3-5) found in the intestinal and reproductive tract of vertebrates; no cysts are produced; have an axostyle; transmission is by living cells
Trichomonas tenax
Trichomonads which is harmless in the mouth
Trichomonas hominis
Trichomonads which is harmless in the gut
Trichomonas vaginalis
found in the genitourinary tract of both sexes (vagina, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate); venereal disease which may cause vaginitis & uretritis