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33 Cards in this Set

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Proteins
structural components of cells, tissues, hormones, and enzymes
Essential Amino Acids
You must get them in your diet and your body does not naturally make them. There are 9 essential amino acids.
Non-Essential Amino Acids
Amino Acids that your body can make on it's own. There are 11 non-essential amino acids.
Structure of Amino Acids
Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. There is also a Acid Group (COOH) and an Amine Group (NH2) & a side chain of one or more hydrogen atoms.
Proteins have between 100 and
10,000 amino acids in sequence.
The shape of the protein determines the
function.
Denaturing Proteins
"unfolding" proteins by heat, acids, bases, or salts. It changes the shape of the protein.
Example: frying an egg, marinating a steak.
Chewing
mechanically altering
Stomach Acid
denatures protein, untangling bonds between amino acids.
Pepsin
Comes from the stomach lining; splits protein into shorter peptide strands.
Enzymes in Small Intestine
Break peptide strands into tri-peptides, di-peptides, and amino acids. Amino acids then enter the blood and travel to the liver.
The liver can
make new proteins, convert amino acids to glucose if diet lacks carbohydrates. It can also convert and store as fat.
"Protein Turn-Over"
Body breaks down and reformulates new proteins.
Nitrogen from protein is toxic so the liver converts
it to urea and excretes via the kidney.
DNA
The blueprint for cells, directs protein synthesis.
DNA directs RNA to
carry out building the proteins.
Abnormalities of protein synthesis
Sickle Cell Anemia; Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Protein provided structural and mechanical support to
the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones.
Proteins have enzymes and hormones that signal
the activities of organs and organ systems
Proteins maintain
fluid balance within and outside of the cell.
Acid Base Balance
When proteins maintain acidity of blood and body fluids.
Protein are carriers for transport of
oxygen, lipids, waste products, vitamins, and electrolytes.
Protein anti-bodies are
part of immune function.
Two determining factors of Protein Quality
Digestibility and amino acid profile.
Animals are more digestible than plant and complete proteins have all 9 essential amino acids and some non-essential.
Incomplete Proteins
Missing some essential amino acids.
Positive Nitrogen Balance
Retaining more Nitrogen than is excreted.
Negative Nitrogen Balance
Losing more Nitrogen than is taken in.
Negative Nitrogen Balance occurs with...
Infections, trauma, burns, and serious illness.
On average we need ____ grams of proteins per kg of weight.
0.8-1.0
Risk of High Protein Diets
Increased risk of heart disease, kidney stones, osteoporosis, some types of cancers, diet may become unbalanced in other nutrients.
Risks of Too Little Protein Consumption
Loss of bone mass, protein energy malnutrition, compromised immune function, Kwashiorkor, Marasmus.
Kwashiorkor
A lack of protein which causes fluids to shift; may get a limited amount of calories. Swollen belly, thin arms and legs.
Marasmus
A severe deficiency of both calories and protein. Severely emaciated and death is likely without medical care.