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107 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
nucleic acids are made up of?
organic C H O N P sugar phosphate and base
What do are nucleic acids?
macromolecules which dictate the amino acid sequence of proteins, which turn control basic life processes
What do nucleic acids store?
genetic information in the form of a code
how are nucleic acids passed on?
from parent to offspring
What is the structure of a nucleic acid?
long chain of nucleotides
what is a nucleotide made up of
a sugar phosphate and a base
if the sugar is ribose in the nucleotide the nucleic acid is
RNA
if the sugar in the nucleotide is deoxyribose, then the nucleic acid is
DNA
There are four different nitrogen bases in a nucleotide, they are
adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine
what do hydrogen bonds do?
hold DNA together
hydrogen bonds occur between what two bases
adenine&thymine cytosine&guanine
DNA is composed of how many strands of ___
complimentary strands of nucleic acids
hydrogen bonds with the complementary bases cause
the twisting of the two chains of nucleic acids
the result of this twisting is called...
double helix
In RNA what base is not present?
thymine
although thymine is not present a similar compound is..called
uracil
RNA is not double stranded but..
single stranded
translation occurs with
proteins
transcription occurs with
RNA
A genome is the
sum of all genetic information for all organisms
DNA controls everything indirectly by..
controlling proteins
how does DNA dictate protein function
by directing the primary structure of every protein in an organism
DNA usually works through RNA because RNA
directly carries out proteins synthesis
messenger RNA is the specific type of RNA involved in the
synthesis of amino acids
mRNA can be compared to a photocopy of DNA because unlike DNA
it can travel throughout the cell
the copying of DNA into mRNA must be exact, or
the wrong proteins will be synthesized
A triplet is what codes for
amino acids
In transcription you go from
acid to acid
complimentary base pairing is a
hydrogen bond
a codon is a
group of 3 for mRNA
mRNA goes into
cytoplasm to do protein synthesis
the DNA line
TACGGTCGAACTATT codes for what RNA?

the RNA then codes for what mRNA?
RNA: ATGCCAGCTTGATAA

mRNA:AUGCCAGCUUGAUAA
DNA copies information into 3 types of RNA?
transfer RNA, messenger RNA, and ribosomal RNA
RNA leaves the nucleus and goes to
work in the cytoplasm
mRNA directs the
formation fo the amino acids
tRNA binds to the
amino acids and carries them to their places in polypeptide chains
rRNA forms
ribosomes, and is the site of protein synthesis
In RNA synthesis, how many strands of DNA is copied to RNA
one
during transcription the RNA produces is
complimentary to the starnd of DNA which creates it
in the process uracil is substitued for
thymine
What are the three steps of RNA synthesis called
Initiation, Elongation, and Termination
What is the first step of transcription called and what are the 2 things that happen
1. enzyme called polymerase is needed
2. enzyme binds to promoter region
What is the second step of transcription called and waht are 3 steps that happen during it
1. elongation and the enzyme leaves promoter region and moves along sequence to be copied
2. as the enzyme reads the DNA, a complementary strand of RNA is made
3. RNA strand is made longer as the enzyme keeps moving down the DNA sequence
What is the thrid step of transcription called and what are the 2 steps that describe it?
termination
1. when the enzyme reaches the terminator region, transcription stops
2. the newly synthesized RNA now called PRIMARY RNA TRANSCRIPT is released with the enzymes from the DNA
transcription complete!!
in RNA processing what is added to the RNA?
a cap and tail
after the cap and tail are added to the RNA what takes place and what is it?
splicing, and it is where introns are removed and exons are kept and linked
after splicing and adding caps and tails for protection, where will the mRNA enter?
the cytoplasm
tRNA is different from mRNA because after it is spliced and modified it is folded into a
clover shape
amino acids attach to one end whle the opposite end contains the _____
anti-codon
rRNA is also different from tRNA and mRNA becaus after rRNA is spliced and modified it is formed to fit subunits of
ribosomes
after the rRNA is spliced and modified to fit the subunits of ribosomes, they are released through the
nuclear envelope into the cytoplasm
a ribosome is made of
2 rna pieces and 2 pieces of protein
protein synthesis is referred to as what and why
translation because the codon sequence of mRNA is translated into the amino acid sequence of the protein
tRNA charging is a two step binding process where
1. amino acid and atp attached
2. tRNA comes along and bumps the ATP away charging the amino acid
the ribosomes contain two binding sites called
the A site and the P site
The P site holds the
tRNA holding the growing polypetide chain
The A site holds the
tRNA bringing the next amino acid to be added to the chain
What is the first step of translation called and what takes place?
initiation
1. the cap of the mRNA threads trhough ribosomes and start codon signals translation to proteins
What is the second step of translation called and what takes places?
elongation
1. codon of mRNA and anticodon of tRNA pair up and enzyme catalyzes peptide binidng to new amino acid to growing chain
What is the third step of translation and describe it?
termination
1. elongation keeps going until stop codon, polypeptide is released
most errors are
caught and corrected
the most common error is
shifiting of the reading frame
a system of enzymes acts to
detect errors and such
G1 is
the cell growth right after it has formed, if cells dont leave it, it's called G0
Interphase contains
G1, G0, Synthesis, and G2
S phase stands for
synthesis
What happens during synthesis
DNA replication
G2 or Growth Phase 2 follows _____ and prepares for ____ by ______
DNA replicaiton, mitosis, double checking everything
What comes after interphase?
PMAT
what does PMAT stand for
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
what happens during early prophase
centrioles move to poles of cell
what happens during middle prophase?
sister chromatids are connected at centromere
what happens at late prophase?
nuclear membrane disappear, and sister chromatids move towards equator
what happens during metaphase?
centromeres line up at equator, centromeres divide and chromatids split but don't separate
What happens during early anaphase?
sister chromatids move apart
What happens during late anaphase?
sister chromatids move to opposite poles
Anaphase is reffred to as the first time
we first distinguish the formation of two distnict cells
what happens during telophase?
nuclear membrane forms around each
Cytokinesis is
the movement of the two halves of the cell into two distinct cells
what are the four things that initiate cell division?
increase in cell size
cells need for growth and repair
regular part of life cycle
feedback loops in body signal
Asexual reproducton involves how many parents?
one
in asexual reproduction, the offspring are typically
genetically identical to the parent
sexual reproduction involves how many parents
two
asexual reproduction does not require any special reproductive cells
TRUE
sexual reproductioni requires special reproductive cells
true
In mitosis what divides in half?
the nucleus
in cytokinesis what divides in half
the cytoplasm
a haploid is a
single set of chromosomes
a diploid is a
double set of chromosomes
homologous pairs are similar in
structure and function
Gamete are
reproductive cells
female gametes are called
eggs
male gametes are called
sperm
haploids come together to form a
diploid zygote
Meiosis is a
special kind of cell division that produces haploid cells in diploid organisms
what is a zygote
the orginal cell of a new organism
what is reduced in meiosis
somatic cells
what are somatic cells
body cells other those those used for specialized reproducton
we have 46 chromosomes but they occur in
23 homologous pairs
in somatic cells because its 23 homologous pairs it's
diploid or 2n
Gametes have
23 chromosomes
because gametes have 23 chromosomes they have
no pairs or 1n
in meiosis, cells divide ____ but replicate ___
twice, once
begins with 2n cell and end with
four 1n cells
hermaphroditism is when
two sexes are not separate
rather than self fertilization, they
exchange sperm and then fertilize
while the exchange sperm..
the transfer of nuclear material takes place