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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Created the first psych lab
Created by William James
Studied observable behavior
healthy growth potential
Nature vs. Nurture
biological vs. social envioronment
List the types of psychologists
Neuroscience Approach
how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
Evolutionary Approach
How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes
Behavior Genetics Approach
How much out genes and our environment influence our individual differences
Psychodynamic Approach
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Behavioral Approach
How we learn observable responses
Cognitive Approach
How we encode, process, store and retrieve information
Social-cultural Approach
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
Hindsight bias
tendency to perceive an outcome that has occurred as being obvious and predictable
bias to seek information that confirms our judgements
Measures of Central Tendency
Mean, Median, Mode
Measures of Variation
Rang & Standard Deviation
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of 2 variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction fo the relationship between the 2 variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
Illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors
Double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment of a placebo.
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
the arithmetic average of a distribution:
[sum of scores divided by number of scores]
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.