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"should cost" estimates
aka independent estimates
1FB
Invitation for Bid
9 Knowledge areas...
Integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communications, risk, procurement.
A balanced matrix structure has many of the same attributes as a weak matrix
but the project manager has more time and power regarding the project.
A feasibility study is conducted
to prove a problem actually exists, document the opportunities at hand, and then determine if a project can be created to resolve the problem or take advantage of the opportunity cited. A feasibility study may also look at the cost of the solution in relation to the possible rewards gained by its implementation.
A key part of communication
is active listening
A project is a
temporary endeavor to create a unique product or service. Operations are ongoing activities
A project life cycle is
the duration of a project
A project manager in a matrix environment
can have low, balanced, or high authority over the project. A project manager in a projectized organization will have a high level of authority on the project
A project manager must
monitor, maintain, and control the work of the project to ensure timeliness, accountability, quality, and success
A project phase
allows a project manager to see the project as a whole and yet still focus on completing the project one phase at a time.
A small change, delay, decision (or lack thereof)
can amplify into serious problems further down the project timeline.
A stage gate allows a project to
continue after performance and deliverable review against a set of predefined metrics
A work authorization system is a method that
allows work to begin according to schedule and circumstance
Accept
The act of formally receiving or acknowledging something and regarding it as being true, sound, suitable, or complete.
acceptable planning solution for long projects whose late activities in the project schedule are unknown or will be determined based on the results of early project phases
describes the work, and only the required work, necessary to meet the project objectives. The scope statement establishes a common vision among the project stakeholders to establish the point and purpose of the project work. It is used as a baseline against which all future project decisions are made to determine if proposed changes or work results are aligned with expectations.
Acceptance Criteria
Those criteria, including performance requirements and essential conditions, which must be met before project deliverables are accepted.
achievement theory
3 motivators:
Achievement
Power
Affiliation
Acquire final team
1. Executing
Acquire Project Team [Process]
The process of obtaining the human resources needed to complete the project.
active listening
occurs when the receiver confirms the message is being received by feedback
Activity
A component of work performed during the course of a project. See also schedule activity.
Activity Attributes [Output/Input]
Multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, unposed dates, constraints, and assumptions.
Activity Code
One or more numerical or text values that identify characteristics of the work or in some way categorize the schedule activity that allows filtering and ordering of activities within reports.
Activity definition
To define the required activities, and only the required activities, to complete the project scope
Activity Definition [Process]
The process of identifying the specific schedule activities that need to be performed to produce the various project deliverables.
Activity Description (AD)
A short phrase or label for each schedule activity used in conjunction with an activity identifier to differentiate that project schedule activity from other schedule activities. The activity description normally describes the scope of work of the schedule activity.
Activity Duration
The time in calendar units between the start and Finish of a schedule activity. See also actual durcrtiatt original duration, and remaining duration.
Activity duration estimating
To determine the estimated required work units to successfully complete the defined activities.
Activity Duration Estimating [Process]
The process of estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual schedule activities.
Activity Identifier
A short unique numeric or text identification assigned to each schedule activity to differentiate that project activity* from other activities. Typically unique within any one project schedule network diagram.
activity list
network diagramming method rarely used. activity lengths on arrows
activity on nodes
network diagramming method commonly used
Activity Resource Estimating [Process]
The process of estimating the types and quantities of resources required to perform each schedule activity.
Activity sequencing
To determine the best sequence of planned activities within the project work.
activity sequencing
a process of setting order of activities.

Inputs:
Activity List
product description
mandatory (hard logic) dependencies
discretionary (soft) dependencies
external dependencies
milestones
Activity Sequencing [Process]
The process of identifying and documenting dependencies among schedule activities.
Activity, List [Output/Input]
A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed.
Activity-on-Arrovv (AOA)
See arrow diagramming method. Activity-on-Node (AON). See precedence diagramming method.
Actual Cost (AC)
Total costs actually incurred and recorded in accomplishing work performed during a given time period for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Actual cost can sometimes be direct labor hours alone, direct costs alone, or all costs including indirect costs. Also referred to as the actual cost of work performed (ACWP). See also earned value management and earned value technique.
Actual Cost (Actual cost of work performed)
Sum of all costs at a given time.
Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)
See actual cost (AC).
Actual Duration
The time in calendar units between the actual start date of the schedule activity and either the data date of the project schedule if the schedule activity is in progress or the actual finish date if the schedule activity is complete.
Actual Finish Date (AF)
The point in time that work actually ended on a schedule activity. (Note: In some application areas, the schedule activity is considered "finished" when work is "substantially complete.")
Actual Start Date (AS)
The point in time that work actually started on a schedule activity.
ACWP
Actual Cost of Work Performed
AD
Activity Description
ADM
Arrow Diagramming Method
Administer contracts
16. Monitoring & Controlling
Administering Contracts
Procurement involves administering the contracts between the buyer and the seller. The contract must be fair and legal. The contract typically is a document that represents the offer and acceptance of both parties. Some organizations may utilize centralized contracting or a contracting office to manage all project contracts
administrative closure
documenting of the project results and the acceptance of the product by the customer or sponsor. Also needed when project is terminated.
Administrative closure
To gather, evaluate, and disseminate the required information on the project or phase, its performance, quality, and completeness. Administrative closure also includes completing the lessons learned document and filing for future reference
AE
Apportioned Effort
AF
Actual Finish date
All of the different elements in project management are integrated
The cost, time, scope, cultural achievability, technical achievability, and more are all related and interdependent
All projects, large or small, have a triple constraint
time, cost, and quality
analogous estimating
top-down estimating, relies on historical estimating.
Analogous Estimating [Technique]
An estimating technique that uses the values of parameters, such as scope, cost, budget, and duration or measures of scale such as size, weight, and complexity from a previous, similar activity as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future activity. It is frequently used to estimate a parameter when there is a limited amount of detailed information about the project (e.g., in the early phases). Analogous estimating is a form of expert judgment. Analogous estimating is most reliable when the previous activities are similar in fact and not just in appearance, and the project team members preparing the estimates have the needed expertise.
AOA
Activity-on-Arrow
AON
Activity-on-Node
Application Area
A category of projects that have common components significant in such projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product (i.e., by similar technologies or production methods) or the type of customer (i.e., internal versus external, government versus commercial) or industry sector (i.e., utilities, automotive, aerospace, information technologies). Application areas can overlap.
Apportioned Effort (AE)
Effort applied to project work that is not readily divisible into discrete efforts for that work, but which is related in direct proportion to measurable discrete work efforts. Contrast with discrete effort.
Approve
The act of formally confirming, sanctioning, ratifying, or agreeing to something.
Approve changes, defect repair, preventive and corrective actions
8. Monitoring & Controlling
Approved Change Request [Output/Input]
A change request that has been processed through the integrated change control process and approved. Contrast with requested change.
Arbitration is a form of negotiation
Technically, it is a form of assisted negotiation
archives should serve as a wealth of historical information
for later reference, future project managers, and reference for versioning, updates, or potential changes to the current project deliverables
are needed to alert management as to when monies must be available for the project to continue.
Cash flow projections
Armed with the appropriate information for each project phase, the project manager can plan for
, schedules, resource availability, risk management, and other project management activities to ensure that the project progresses successfully
Arrow
The graphic presentation of a schedule activity in the arrow diagramming method or a logical relationship between schedule activities in the precedence diagramming method.
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM [Technique]
A schedule network diagramming technique in which schedule activities are represented by arrows. The tail of the arrow represents the start, and the head represents the finish of the schedule activity. (The length of the amlow does not represent the expected duration of the schedule activity.) Schedule activities are connected at points called nodes (usually drawn as small circles) to illustrate the sequence in which the schedule activities are expected to be performed. See also precedence diagramming method.
AS
Actual Start date
As a project manager, you should identify the requirements
as close to the project launch as possible
As the project moves closer to completion, the likelihood of
risk diminishes
assumptions
beliefs considered to be true, real for the purposes of planning
Assumptions [Output/Input]
Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration. Assumptions affect all aspects of project planning, and are part of the progressive elaboration of the project. Project teams frequently identify, document, and validate assumptions as part of their planning process. Assumptions generally involve a degree of risk.
Assumptions Analysis [Technique]
A technique that explores the accuracy of assumptions and identifies risks to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions.
At the end of each of the listed phases
there’d likely be an inspection and confirmation that the project is moving towards its completion. The completion of a phase allows a project to move into the next phase
At the launch of a project, the project manager must
have inherited the vision of the project
Attributes of a project manager in a balanced matrix are
Reasonable authority

Management of a part-time project team

Full-time role as a project manager

May have part-time administrative staff to help expedite the project
Attributes of a project manager in a strong matrix include
A reasonable to high level of power

Management of a part-time to nearly full-time project team

Full-time role as a project manager

Has a full-time administrative staff to help expedite the project
Auditing Procurement Documents
The project manager has spent the money, but on what? The procurement audit process requires accountability for the monies that have been invested in the project. In some instances, the financial audit is more formal, and an accountant or a finance professional reviews the project’s accounting. In other instances, the process is considered a debriefing and is completed with the project manager and management. In practically all instances, the intensity of the procurement audit is relevant to the autonomy of the project manager: the more power and responsibility the project manager has in an organization, the more accountable he is for the project budget.
Authority
The right to apply project resources*, expend fluids, make decisions, or give approvals.
autocratic
making decisions regardless of team input
avoidance
response to risk event. planning a different technique to remove risk from project
BAC
budget at completion -- predicted budget for project
Backward Pass
The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all schedule activities. Determined by working backwards through the schedule network logic from the project's end date. The end date may be calculated in a forward pass or set by the customer or sponsor. See also schedule network analysis.
Balanced matrix
The project manager has balanced project authority with management. This model allows efficient use of functional resources.
Bar Chart [Tool]
A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, schedule activities or work breakdown structure components are listed down the left side of the chart, dales are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars. Also called a Gantt chart.
Baseline
The approved time phased plan (for a project, a work breakdown structure component, a work package, or a schedule activity), plus or minus approved project scope, cost, schedule, and technical changes. Generally refers to the current baseline, but may refer to the original or some other baseline. Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline, technical baseline). See also performance measurement baseline.
Baseline Finish Date
The finish date of a schedule activity in the approved schedule baseline. Sec also scheduled finish elate.
Baseline Start Date
The start date of a schedule activity in the approved schedule baseline. See also scheduled strut date.
BCWP
Budgeted Cost of Work Performed
BCWS
Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled
Before projects can move into the implementation
Before projects can move into the implementation
Beginning Vendor Solicitation
In most projects, vendors are involved at some point. Part of the executing process is to solicit vendors should they need to be involved with the project. Adequate timing is required for the procurement process to allow the vendors to provide adequate, appropriate information for the project—and to allow the project manager to make an educated decision on which should be selected. Vendor solicitation includes obtaining quotations, bids, and proposals for the services or the goods to be purchased for the project completion.
benchmarking
using prior projects to set quality standards for processes and results
benefit measurement methods
used in comparing the value of one project to another
Beware of exam questions that tell you the scope is completed but that the customer is not satisfied.
Know first that if the scope is complete, the project is complete
bid
document from seller to buyer. Used when price is determining factor
bidder conference
hoster by buyer, ensures all bidders have equal opportunity to gain information
Bill of Materials (BOM)
A documented formal hierarchical tabulation of the physical assemblies, subassemblies, and components needed to fabricate a product.
BOM
Bill Of Materials
bottom-up estimating
budgeting technique where each component in the WBS is estimated then totaled. Longest but most accurate.
Bottom-up Estimating [Technique]
A method of estimating a component of work. The work is decomposed into more detail. An estimate is prepared of what is needed to meet the requirements of each of the lower, more detailed pieces of work, and these estimates are then aggregated into a total quantity for the component of work. The accuracy of bottom-up estimating is driven by the size and complexity of the work identified at the lower levels. Generally smaller work scopes increase the accuracy of the estimates.
Brainstorming [Technique]
A general data gathering and creativity technique that can be used to identify risks, ideas, or solutions to issues by using a group of team members or subject-matter experts. Typically, a brainstorming session is structured so that each participant's ideas are recorded for later analysis.
Budget
The approved estimate for the project or any work breakdown structure component or any schedule activity. See also estimate.
Budget at Completion (BAC)
The sum of all the budgets established for the work to be performed on a project or a work breakdown structure component or a schedule activity. The total planned value for the project.
budget estimate
used in early Planning process and in top-down estimates. Variance -10 to +25
Budgeted At Completion
See earned value (Elf). Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS). See planned value (P V). Buffer. See reserve.
Build
Within this phase, there’d be logical activities and mini-phases necessary to reach the project completion, such as the foundation, the framing, the roofing, and so on
bull's eye
creates limits to acceptable earned value metrics. Outside 'eye' is automatic escalation to management
By involving the stakeholders at different aspects of the project, their requirements are more likely to be met
By involving the stakeholders at different aspects of the project, their requirements are more likely to be met
CA
Control Account
Calendar Unit
The smallest unit of time used in scheduling the project, Calendar units are generally in hours, days, or weeks, but can also be in quarter years, months, shifts, or even in minutes.
CAP
Control Account Plan
Cardinal scales
numerical value
e.g., .01 to 1.0
cause-and-effect diagrams
fisbone, Ishikawa

Goal: treat root cause
CCB
Change Control Board
centralized contracting
all contracts need to be approved by central unit in organization
Change Control
Identifying, documenting, approving or rejecting, and controlling changes to the project baselines *.
Change Control Board
A board that determines the validity of and approves project change requests.
Change Control Board (CCB)
A formally constituted group of stakeholders responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project, with all decisions and recommendations being recorded.
Change Control System
A system to determine the validity of and act upon project change requests.
Change Control System [Tool]
A collection of formal documented procedures that define how project deliverables and documentation will be controlled, changed, and approved. In most application areas the change control system is a subset of the configuration management system.
Change Request
Requests to expand or reduce the project scope, modify policies, processes, plans, or procedures, modify costs or budgets, or revise schedules. Requests for a change can be direct or indirect, externally or internally initiated, and legally or contractually mandated or optional. Only formally documented requested changes are processed and only approved change requests are implemented.
Chart of Accounts [Tool]
Any numbering system used to monitor project costs* by category (e.g., labor, supplies, materials, and equipment). The project chart of accounts is usually based upon the corporate chart of accounts of the primary performing organization. Contrast with code of accounts.
Checklist [Outputllnput]
Items listed together for convenience of comparison, or to ensure the actions associated with them are managed appropriately and not forgotten. An example is a list of items to be inspected that is created during quality planning and applied during quality control.
checklists
lists of activities to check off to make sure work is done. QC
Claim
A request, demand, or assertion of rights by a seller against a buyer, or vice versa, for consideration, compensation, or payment under the terms of a legally binding contract, such as for a disputed change.
Close Project [Process]
The process of finalizing all activities across all of the project process groups to formally close the project or phase.
Closing
Ah, the best process of them all. The closing process, sometimes called the project postmortem, involves closing out the project accounts, completing final acceptance of the project deliverables, filing the necessary paperwork, and assigning the project team to new projects. Oh yeah, and celebrating!

Most projects have similar characteristics, such as the following:
Closing Administrative Duties
When the project is completed, the project manager must finalize all reports, document the project experience, and provide evidence of customer acceptance. The project manager will create a final report reflecting the project success, or failure. The project manager will also provide information reflective of the project product and how it met the project requirements, and then will complete the lessons learned documentation
Closing Processes [Process Group]
Those processes performed to formally terminate all activities of a project or phase, and transfer the completed product to others or close a cancelled project.
Closing Vendor Contracts
At the completion of a project or project phase the vendor contracts must be closed out. Confirmation that vendor invoices and purchase orders have been fulfilled, met, and paid is needed to complete the vendor closeout process. Closing out vendor contracts may also require proof or delivery of the goods or services purchased. The vendor contracts may be audited to confirm the vendor responsibilities have been met
Co-location [Technique]
An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity.
Code of Accounts [Tool]
Any numbering system used to uniquely identify each component of the work breakdown structure. Contrast with chart of accounts.
coercive power
a.k.a., penalty power. Team is afraid of PM
Collect processes, procedures and historical information
3. Initiating
collection of projects with a common cause
Programs are
collective bargaining agreements
contractual agreements that may be constraints
Common Cause
A source of variation that is inherent in the system and predictable. On a control chart, it appears as part of the random process variation (i.e., variation from a process that would be considered normal or not unusual), and is indicated by a random pattern of points within the control limits. Also referred to as random cause. Contrast with special cause.
Common constraints you’ll encounter
time constraints in the form of deadlines and the availability of resources
Communication
A process through which information is exchanged among persons using a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviors.
Communication Management Plan [Output/Input]
The document that describes: the communications needs and expectations for the project; how and in what format information will be communicated; when and where each communication will be made; and who is responsible for providing each type of communication. A communication management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the requirements of the project stakeholders. The communication management plan is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the project management plan.
Communication skills are
included as part of the Professional Responsibility portion of the PMP exam. We’ll cover the Professional Responsibility information in Chapter 13
Communications is an activity that will consume
much of the project manager’s time, but it is not one of the five process groups.
communications management plan
documents & organizes stakeholders communications needs
Closing Processes [Process Group]
Those processes performed to formally terminate all activities of a project or phase, and transfer the completed product to others or close a cancelled project.
Closing Vendor Contracts
At the completion of a project or project phase the vendor contracts must be closed out. Confirmation that vendor invoices and purchase orders have been fulfilled, met, and paid is needed to complete the vendor closeout process. Closing out vendor contracts may also require proof or delivery of the goods or services purchased. The vendor contracts may be audited to confirm the vendor responsibilities have been met
Co-location [Technique]
An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity.
Code of Accounts [Tool]
Any numbering system used to uniquely identify each component of the work breakdown structure. Contrast with chart of accounts.
coercive power
a.k.a., penalty power. Team is afraid of PM
Collect processes, procedures and historical information
3. Initiating
collection of projects with a common cause
Programs are
collective bargaining agreements
contractual agreements that may be constraints
Common Cause
A source of variation that is inherent in the system and predictable. On a control chart, it appears as part of the random process variation (i.e., variation from a process that would be considered normal or not unusual), and is indicated by a random pattern of points within the control limits. Also referred to as random cause. Contrast with special cause.
Common constraints you’ll encounter
time constraints in the form of deadlines and the availability of resources
Communication
A process through which information is exchanged among persons using a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviors.
Communication Management Plan [Output/Input]
The document that describes: the communications needs and expectations for the project; how and in what format information will be communicated; when and where each communication will be made; and who is responsible for providing each type of communication. A communication management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the requirements of the project stakeholders. The communication management plan is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan of, the project management plan.
Communication skills are
included as part of the Professional Responsibility portion of the PMP exam. We’ll cover the Professional Responsibility information in Chapter 13
Communications is an activity that will consume
much of the project manager’s time, but it is not one of the five process groups.
communications management plan
documents & organizes stakeholders communications needs
Communications planning
To determine who needs what, when they need it, and in what modality (paper, electronic, and so on) it may be needed
Communications Planning [Process]
The process of determining the information and communications needs of the project stakeholders: who they are, what is their level of interest and influence on the project, who needs what information, when will they need it, and how it will be given to them.
Compensation
Something given or received, a payment or recompense, usually something monetary or in kind for products, services, or results provided or received.
Complete contract closure`
2. Closure
Complete product scope
3. Excectuing
Completing projects as needed
These non-project-centric entities can complete projects successfully, but may not have the project systems in place to efficiently support projects. The lack of a project support system can cause the project to succumb to additional risks, lack of organization, and reporting difficulties. Some organizations may have special internal business units to support the projects in motion that are separate from the accounting, time, and management systems used by the rest of the organization.
Completing projects for others
These entities swoop into other organizations and complete the project work based on specifications, details, and specification documents. Classical examples of these types of organizations include consultants, architectural firms, technology integration companies, and advertising agencies
Completing projects internally through a system
These entities have adopted management by projects (discussed in Chapter 1). Recall that organizations using management by projects have accounting, time, and management systems in place to account for the time, cost, and worth of each project.
Completing Scope Verification
Scope verification is a control process. However, at the end of the project the scope must be verified for final acceptance. This process is completed with the project manager and the key stakeholders. Scope verification is the process of inspecting, touring, and “taking a walk-through” of the project deliverables to confirm that the requirements of the project have been met. Scope verification may happen at different intervals throughout the project, such as at key milestones or phase completions. Scope verification at the end of a project may require a formal sign-off from the customer that the project is complete and to their satisfaction
complex organization of decision-making, planning, implementation, control, and documentation of the experience from start to finish. In addition to traditional project management, there are related areas of project management that you may encounter, have encountered, or are actively participating in.
Project management is a
Component
A constituent part, element, or piece of a complex whole.
compromising
requires both parties to give up something. Lose-lose situation
configuration management
activities focusing on controlling the characteristics of a product or service. AKA a rigorous change control system.
Configuration management
5. Monitoring & Controlling
Configuration Management System [Tool]
A subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service, or component; control any changes to such characteristics; record and report each change and its implementation status; and support the audit of the products, results, or components to verify conformance to requirements. It includes the documentation, tracking systems, and defined approval levels necessary for authorizing and controlling changes. In most application areas, the configuration management system includes the change control system.
Confirm work is done to requirements
3. Closure
Conflict Resolution Techniques (5)
From best to worst:
1. Confrontation
2. Compromise
3. Withdrawl
4. Smoothing
5. Forcing
Consider the Expected Quality
What good is a project if it is finished on time and on budget, but the quality of the deliverable is so poor it is unusable? Some projects have a set level of quality that allows the project team to aim for. Other projects follow the organization’s Quality Assurance Program such as ISO 9000. And, unfortunately, some projects have a general, vague idea of what an acceptable level of quality is. Without a specific target for quality, trouble can ensue. The project manager and project team may spend more time and monies to hit an extremely high level of quality when a lower, expected level of quality would suffice for the project. Quality is needed, but an exact target of expected quality is demanded.
Consider the Project Risk
Do you play golf? In golf, as in project management, there is a theory called The Risk-Reward Principle. You’re teeing off for the seventh hole. If you shoot straight, you can lay up in the fairway, shoot again, and then two-putt for par. Pretty safe and predictable. However, if you have confidence in your driver, you may choose to cut the waterway and get on the green in one. If you accept and beat that risk, you’ll have a nice reward. Choke and land in the water and you’re behind the game. In project management, the idea is the same. Some risks are worth taking, while others are worth the extra cost to avoid. You’ll learn all about risks in Chapter 11.
constrained optimizaion methods
complex mathematical formulas and algorithms used to predict the future success of projects. E.g., linear programming
Constraint [Input]
The state, quality, or sense of being restricted to a given course of action or inaction. An applicable restriction or limitation, either internal or external to the project, that will affect the performance of the project or a process. For example. a schedule constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on the project schedule that affects when a schedule activity can be scheduled and is usually in the form of fixed imposed dates. A cost constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on the project budget such as fiends available over time. A project resource constraint is any limitation or restraint placed on resource usage, such as what resource skills or disciplines are available and the amount of a given resource available during a specified time frame.
constraints
any influence on a project that may limit the options of the team
Constraints Are Imposed
Within every project there is a driving force for the project. You’ve probably experienced some force first-hand. For example, ever had a project that had to be done by an exact date or you’d face fines and fees? This is a schedule constraint. Or a project that could not go over it’s set budget? This is a financial constraint. Or what about a project that had to hit an exact level of quality regardless of how long the project took? This is scope constraint. All are forces that tend to be in competition with each other.

Specifically, there are three constraints that a project manager will encounter
Contingency
See reserve. Contingency Allowance. See reserve.
contingency reserve
a time or dollar amount allotted to risk response
Contingency Reserve [Output/Input]
The amount of,junds, budget, or time needed above the estimate to reduce the risk of overruns of project objectives to a level acceptable to the organization.
Continuous improvement
7. Executing
contract
legal, binding agreement, preferably written, between buyer and seller detailing requirements and obligations of both parties. Must have:
1. Offer
2. Acceptance
3. Legal capacity
4. Consideration
5. Legal purpose
Contract [Output/Input]
A contract is a mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified product or service or result and obligates the bui'er to pay for it.
contract administation
process of ensuring the buyer and seller perform to specs in contract
Contract Administration [Process]
The process of managing the contract and the relationship between the buyer and seller, reviewing and documenting how a seller is performing or has performed to establish required corrective actions and provide a basis for future relationships with the seller, managing contract related changes and, when appropriate, managing the contractual relationship with the outside buyer of the project.
contract change control system
defines how contracts may be changed
contract closeout
process for confirming the obligations of the contract went as expected. PM, customer, key stakeholders perform product verification
Contract closeout
To complete and finalize any procurement issues such as payment, inspection of procured services and goods, and any open project items.
Contract Closure [Process]
The process of completing and settling the contract, including resolution of any open items and closing each contract.
contract file
a complete indexed set of procurement records incorporated into admin closure. includes financial as well as scope verification
Contract Management Plan [Output/Input]
The document that describes how a specific contract will be administered and can include items such as required documentation delivery and performance requirements. A contract management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the requirements in the contract, Each contract management plan is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan.
Contract Statement of Work (SOW) [Output/Input]
A narrative description of products, services, or results to be supplied under contract.
Contract Work Breakdown Structure (CWBS) [Output/Input]
A portion of the work breakdown structure for the project developed and maintained by a seller contracting to provide a subproject or project component.
Control [Technique]
Comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, and recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.
Control Account (CA) [Tool]
A management control point where scope, budget (resource plans), actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to earned value for perfomiance measurement. Control accounts are placed at selected management points (specific components at selected levels) of the work breakdown structure. Each control account may include one or more work packages, but each work package may be associated with only one control account. Each control account is associated with a specific single organizational component in the organizational breakdown structure (Ol3S). Previously called a cost account. See also work package.
Control Account Plan (CAP) [Tool]
A plan for all the work and effort to be performed in a control account. Each CAP has a definitive statement of work, schedule, and time-phased budget. Previously called a Cost Account Plan.
Control Chart [Tool]
A graphic display of process data over time and against established control limits, and that has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.
control charts
illustrate performance of project over time. Upper and lower limits indicate whether project is out of control
Control Limits
The area composed of three standard deviations on either side of the centerline, or mean, of a normal distribution of data plotted on a control chart that reflects the expected variation in the data. See also specification limits.
Controlling
The project manager must control the work the project team and the vendors are completing. The project manager checks that the deliverables of the phases are in alignment with the project scope, defends the scope from changes, and confirms the expected level of quality of the work being performed. This process also requires the project manager to confirm that the cost and schedule are in sync with what was planned. Finally, the project team will inform the project manager of their progress, who will, in turn, report on the project’s progress to the project sponsor, to management, and perhaps even to key stakeholders in the organization
Controlling
Project performance is monitored and measured to ensure the project plan is being implemented to design specifications and requirements
Controlling Processes
Controlling processes are the activities that ensure the project goes according to plan and the actions to implement when evidence proves the project is not going according to plan. Specifically, the controlling processes verify project work and the response to that work. In addition, the project manager must work to control the predicted cost and schedule of the project. Variances to the cost and schedule will affect the project’s success
COQ
Cost of Quality
core processes
Common to all projects:
scope planning
scope definition
activity definition
activity duration estimating
activity sequencing
cost budgeting
cost estimating
resource planning
risk management planning
schedule development
project plan development
Corrective Action
Documented direction for executing the project work to bring expected future performance of the project work in line with the project management plan.
Cost
The monetary value or price of a project activity* or component that includes the monetary worth of the resources required to perform and complete the activity or component, or to produce the component. A specific cost can be composed of a combination of cost components including direct labor hours, other direct costs, indirect labor hours, other indirect costs, and purchased price. (However, in the earned value management methodology, in some instances, the term cost can represent only labor hours without conversion to monetary worth.) See also actual cost and estimate.
cost baseline
what is expected to be spent in a project. Usually shown in an S-curve
Cost budgeting
To determine the estimated cost of the activities to complete the project work

the process of assigned a cost to an individual work package. Results in an S-curve that becomes the baseline
Cost Budgeting [Process]
The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish a cost baseline.
Cost Budgets,
Budgets, monies, greenbacks, dead presidents, whatever you want to call it—the cost of completing the project is always high on everyone’s list of questions. The project manager must find a method to accurately predict the cost of completing the project within a given timeline, and then control the project to stay within the given budget. We will learn more about this in Chapter 7. Sounds easy, right? The following diagram illustrates the Iron Triangle of scope, schedule, and cost constraints.
cost change control
documents the procedures to request, approve and incorporate changes to project costs. Part of Integrated Change Control
Cost control
To prevent unnecessary changes to the project budget.
an active process to control causes of cost change, document and monitor
Cost Control [Process]
The process of influencing the factors that create variances, and controlling changes to the project budget.
Cost estimates can be calculated a number of different ways
such as through top-down estimates, bottom-up estimates, or the dreaded informal “hallway estimates.” All estimates should identify a range of variance reflective of the degree of confidence of the estimate, the assumption the estimate is based on, and how long the estimate is valid
cost estimating
the process of calculating the costs by category of the resources to complete project work
Cost estimating
To determine an estimated amount of monies to complete the project work using the defined facilities, services, and goods
Cost Estimating [Process]
The process of developing an approximation of the cost of the resources needed to complete project activities*.
cost management plan
details how variances from the project costs will be managed. Output of cost estimating.
Cost Management Plan [Output/Input]
The document that sets out the format and establishes the activities and criteria for planning, structuring, and controlling the project costs. A cost management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadly framed, based on the requirements of the project stakeholders. The cost management plan is contained in, or is a subsidiary plan, of the project management plan.
cost of nonconformance
cost of completing project work without meeting quality standards. Biggest issue is money for rework.
cost of quality
expense of all activities within a project to meet quality objectives
Cost of Quality (COQ) [Technique]
Determining the costs incurred to ensure qualitt. Prevention and appraisal costs (cost of conformance) include costs for quality planning, quality control (QC), and quality assurance to ensure compliance to requirements (i.e., training, QC systems, etc.). Failure costs (cost of non-conformance) include costs to rework products, components, or processes that are non-compliant, costs of warranty work and waste, and loss of reputation.
Cost Performance Index
EV / AC

(Rate at which we are meeting cost expectations)
Cost Performance Index (CPI)
A measure of cost efficiency on a project. It is the ratio of earned value (EV) to actual costs (AC). CPI = EV divided by AC. A value equal to or greater than one indicates a favorable condition and a value less than one indicates an unfavorable condition.
cost plus fixed fee
profit margin for seller
cost plus incentive fee
seller determines price for product or service but includes reward for completing ahead of time
cost plus percentage of cost
cost overruns assigned to buyer. illegal in USA
Cost Variance
EV - AC

(Difference between what was expected to spend and actually spent)
Cost Variance (CV)
A measure of cost performance on a project. It is the algebraic difference between earned value (EV) and actual cost (AC). CV = EV minus AC. A positive value indicates a favorable condition and a negative value indicates an unfavorable condition.
Cost-Plus-Fee (CPF)
A type of cost reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for seller's allowable costs for performing the contract work and seller also receives a fee calculated as an agreed upon percentage of the costs. The fee varies with the actual cost.
Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee (CPFF) Contract
A type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller's allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).
Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF) Contract
A type of cost-reimbursable contract where the barer reimburses the seller for the seller's allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance criteria.
Cost-Plus-Percentage of Cost (CPPC)
See cost-plus-fee.
Cost-Reimbursable Contract
A type of contract involving payment (reimbursement) by the buyer to the seller for the seller's actual costs, plus a fee typically representing seller's profit. Costs are usually classified as direct costs or indirect costs. Direct costs are costs incurred for the exclusive benefit of the project, such as salaries of firll-time project staff. Indirect costs, also called overhead and general and administrative cost, are costs allocated to the project by the performing organization as a cost of doing business, such as salaries of management indirectly involved in the project, and cost of electric utilities for the office. Indirect costs are usually calculated as a percentage of direct costs. Cost-reimbursable contracts often include incentive clauses where, if the seller meets or exceeds selected project objectives, such as schedule targets or total cost, then the seller receives from the buyer an incentive or bonus payment.
cost-reimbursable contracts
contract that pays seller for product
CPF
Cost-Plus-Fee
CPFF
Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee
CPI
Cost Performance Index

How the project is doing financially

CPI = EV/AC
CPIF
Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee
CPM
critical path method. used to determine float
CPPC
Cost-Plus-Percentage of Cost
crashing
practice of adding additional resources to critical path to end project early. results in increased costs.
Crashing [Technique]
A specific type of project schedule compression technique performed by taking action to decrease the total project schedule duration* after analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum schedule duration compression for the least additional cost. Typical approaches for crashing a schedule include reducing schedule activity durations and increasing the assignment of resources on schedule activities. See schedule compression and see also fast tracking.
Create activity list
5. Planning
Create forecasts
15. Monitoring & Controlling
Create network diagram
6. Planning
Create process improvement plan
20. Planning
Create project scope statement
2. Planning
Create WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) [Process]
The process of subdividing the major project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components
Create WBS and WBS dictionary
4. Planning
Criteria
Standards, rules, or tests on which a judgment or decision can be based, or by which a product, service, result, or process can be evaluated.
Critical Activity
Any schedule activity on a critical path in a project schedule. Most commonly determined by using the critical path method. Although some activities are "critical," in the dictionary sense, without being on the critical path, this meaning is seldom used in the project context.
Critical Chain Method [Technique]
A schedule network analysis technique* that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. The critical chain method mixes deterministic and probabilistic approaches to schedule network analysis.
Critical Path [Output/Input]
Generally, but not always, the sequence of schedule activities that determines the duration of the project. Generally, it is the longest path through the project. I-lowever, a critical path can end, as an example, on a schedule milestone that is in the middle of the project schedule and that has a finish-no-later-than imposed date schedule constraint. See also critical path method.
Critical Path Method (CPM) [Technique]
A schedule network analysis technique* used to determine the amount of scheduling flexibility (the amount of float) on various logical network paths in the project schedule network, and to determine the minimum total project duration. Early start and finish dates* are calculated by means of a forward pass, using a specified start date. Late start and finish dates* are calculated by means of a backward pass, starting from a specified completion date, which sometimes is the project earl) finish date determined during the forward pass calculation.
Current Finish Date
The current estimate of the point in time when a schedule activity will be completed, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. See also scheduled finish date and baseline finish elate.
Current Start Date
The current estimate of the point in time when a schedule activity will begin, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. See also scheduled start date and baseline start date.
Customer
The person or organization that will use the project's product or service or result. (See also user).
Customers, internal or external
are the most important stakeholders in a project
CV
Cost Variance
CWBS
Contract Work Breakdown Structure
Data Date (-DD)
The date up to or through which the project's reporting system has provided actual status and accomplishments. In some reporting systems, the status information for the data date is included in the past and in some systems the status information is in the future. Also called as-of date and time-non' date.
Date
A term representing the day, month, and year of a calendar, and, in some instances, the time of day.
DD
Data Date
Decision Tree Analysis [Technique]
The decision tree is a diagram that describes a decision under consideration and the implications of choosing one or another of the available alternatives. It is used when some future scenarios or outcomes of actions are uncertain. It incorporates probabilities and the costs or rewards of each logical path of events and future decisions, and uses expected monetary value analysis to help the organization identify the relative values of alternate actions. See also expected monetary value anal ys i.s.
decoder, encoder
part of communications model
Decomposition [Technique]
A planning technique that subdivides the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components, until the project work associated with accomplishing the project scope and providing the deliverables is defined in sufficient detail to support executing, monitoring, and controlling the work.
Defect
An imperfection or deficiency in a project component where that component does not meet its requirements or specifications and needs to be either repaired or replaced.
Defect Repair
Formally documented identification of a defect in a project component with a recommendation to either repair the defect or completely replace the component.
Defining Project Management
Is the supervision and control of the work required to complete the project vision
Defining the Project Life Cycle
One common attribute of all projects is that they eventually end. Think back to one of your favorite projects. The project started with a desire to change something within an organization. The idea to change this “something” was mulled around, kicked around, and researched until someone with power deemed it a good idea to move forward and implement the project. As the project progressed towards completion there were some very visible phases within the project life. Each phase within the life of the project created a deliverable.

For example, consider a project to build a new warehouse. The construction company has some pretty clear phases within this project: research, blueprints, approvals and permits, breaking ground, laying the foundation, and so on. Each phase, big or small, results in some accomplishment that everyone can look to and say, “Hey! We’re making progress!” Eventually the project is completed and the warehouse is put into production.

At the beginning of the project, through planning, research, experience, and expert judgment, the project manager and the project team will plot out when each phase should begin, when it should end, and the related deliverable that will come from each phase. Often, the deliverable of each phase is called a milestone. The milestone is a significant point in the schedule that allows the stakeholders to see how far the project has progressed—and how far the project has to go to reach completion.
Defining the Project Management Process
Will all projects have the same phases? Of course not! A project to create and manufacture a new pharmaceutical will not have the same phases as a project to build a skyscraper. Both projects, however, can map to the five project management processes. These processes are typical of projects, and are iterative in nature—that is, you don’t finish a process never to return. Let’s take a look at each process and its attributes.
definitive estimate
used in late Planning process and in bottom-up estimates. Variance -5 to +10
deliverable
The outcome of a project or phase.
Deliverable [Outputllnput]
Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that must be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Often used more narrowly in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to approval by the project sponsor or customer. See also product, service, and result.
Delphi Technique [Technique]
An information gathering technique used as a way to reach a consensus of experts on a subject. Experts on the subject participate in this technique anonymously. A facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project points related to the subject. The responses are summarized and are then re-circulated to the experts for further comment. Consensus may be reached in a few rounds of this process. The Delphi technique helps reduce bias in the data and keeps any one person from having undue influence on the outcome.
Dependency
See logical relationship.
Design
The architects and the designers would work with the requirements to create the specifications for the house in alignment with the requirements of the customer
design of experiments
relies on statistical 'what-if' scenarios to determin what variables in a project will give the best outcome. Most often used on the product.
Design Review [Technique]
A management technique used for evaluating a proposed design to ensure that the design of the system or product meets the customer requirements, or to assure that the design will perform successfully, can be produced, and can be maintained.
Determine communications requirements
14. Planning
Determine company culture and existing systems
2. Initiating
Determine critical path
9. Planning
Determine how you will do plannning -- part of management plans
1. Planning
determine if it is feasible for a project to exist
determine if it is feasible for a project to exist
Determine project objectives
7. Initiating
Determine quality standards, processes and metrics
12. Planning
Determine roles and responsibilities
13. Planning
Determine team
3. Planning
Determine variances and if they warrant corrective action or a change
3. Monitoring & Controlling
Determine what to purchase
17. Planning
Determining Vendor Source
In most projects, vendors are involved at some point. Part of the executing process is to solicit vendors should they need to be involved with the project. Adequate timing is required for the procurement process to allow the vendors to provide adequate, appropriate information for the project—and to allow the project manager to make an educated decision on which should be selected. Vendor solicitation includes obtaining quotations, bids, and proposals for the services or the goods to be
Develop budget
11. Planning
Develop closure procedures
1. Closure
Develop final PM plan and performance measurement baselines
21. Planning
Develop preliminary project scope statement
10. Initating
Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement [Process]
The process of developing the preliminary project scope statement that provides a high level scope narrative.
Develop project charter
9. Initiating
Develop Project Charter [Process]
The process of developing the project charter that formally authorizes a project.
Develop Project Management Plan [Process]
The process of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans into a project management plan.
Develop Project Team [Process]
The process of improving the competencies and interaction of team members to enhance project performance.
Develop schedule
10. Planning
Direct and Manage Project Execution [Process]
The process of executing the work defined in the project management plain to achieve the project's requirements defined in the project scope statement.
direct costs
costs incurred by the project in order for it to exist
Discipline
A field of work requiring specific knowledge and that has a set of rules governing work conduct (e.g., mechanical engineering, computer programming, cost estimating, etc.).
Discrete Effort
Work effort that is separate, distinct, and related to the completion of specific work breakdown structure components and deliverables, and that can be directly planned and measured. Contrast with apportioned effort.
discretionary dependencies
soft logic
Dispersing Project Information
Information must be disseminated according to the communications plan. Stakeholders will need to be kept abreast of the project status. Management may want milestone reports, variance reports, and status reports. Customers will have specific communications requirements. All of these demands, from any stakeholder, should be documented within the communications plan—and then followed through in the execution process.
Divide large projects into phases
4. Initiating
Document
A medium and the information recorded thereon, that generally has permanence and can be read by a person or a machine. Examples include project management plans, specifications, procedures, studies, and manuals.
Document assumptions and contraints
8. Initiating
Document business need
6. Initiating
Documented Procedure
A formalized written description of how to carry out an activity, process, technique, or methodology.
EAC
Estimate At Completion.

EAC = BAC/CPI = ETC + AC
Dummy Activity
A schedule activity of zero duration used to show a logical relationship in the arrow diagramming method. Dummy activities are used when logical relationships cannot be completely or correctly described with schedule activity arrows. Dummy activities are generally shown graphically as a clashed line headed by an arrow.
Duration (DU or DUR)
The total number of work periods (not including holidays or other nonworking periods) required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time. Contrast with effort. See also original duration, remaining duration, and actual duration.
EAC
BAC/CPI = use if spending rate will continue
AC + BAC - EV = use if variances not typical
Each phase within the preceding project has logical activities that dictate the point of the
phase, the goal of each, and what the deliverables of each phase likely will be.
Early Finish Date (EF)
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity (or the project) can finish, based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the project management plan.
Early Start Date (ES)
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity (or the project) can start, based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Early start dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the project management plan.
Earned Value (Budgeted Cost of Work Performed)
Actual planned complete * BAC
Earned Value (EV)
The value of work performed expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Also referred to as the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP).
Earned Value (EV)
EV = %Complete * BAC

The work that has been accomplished withint the project plus the authorized budget for the work that has been accomplished.
Earned Value Management
EVM integrates scope, schedule and cost to give a scalable point-in-time assessment of the project.
Earned Value Management (EVM)
A management methodology for integrating scope, schedule, and resources, and for objectively measuring project performance and
Earned Value Technique (EVT) [Technique]
A specific technique for measuring the performance of work and used to establish the pelformcnlce measurement baseline (PMB). Also referred to as the earning rules and crediting method.
EF
Early Finish date
effective listening
listener is involved by paying attention
Effort
The number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually expressed as staff hours. staff days, or staff weeks. Contrast with duration,
EMV
Expected Monetary Value
Enforcing Schedule Control
Schedule control requires constant monitoring of the project’s progress, approval of phase deliverables, and task completion. Slippage must be analyzed early in the project to determine the root cause of the problem. Activities that slip may indicate inaccurate estimates, hidden work, or a poor WBS. Quality issues can also throw the project schedule when the time to redo project activities is taken into consideration, as shown in the following illustration. Finally, the project manager must also consider outside influences and their affect on the project—for example, weather, market conditions, cultural issues, and so on.
Ensuring Performance Reporting
The project manager and the project team must work together to report and record accurate completions of work. Performance reporting stems from accurate measurement by the project team, proof of work completion, and factual estimates. The project manager then churns the reported projects through earned value management, schedule baselines, cost baselines, and milestone targets. The status reports to management are reflective of where the project has been, where it stands now, and where it’s heading
Ensuring Quality Control
Quality control (QC) measures work results to determine if they are in alignment with quality standards. If the work results are not of quality, QC uses methods to determine why the results are inadequate and how to eliminate the causes of the quality deficiencies.
Ensuring Team Development
The project manager must work with the project team members to ensure that their level of proficiency is in agreement with their obligations on the project. This may involve classroom learning, shadowing between project team members, or on-the-job training. The success of the project work is dependent on the project team’s ability. Should the team or team members be lagging in required knowledge to complete the project work, additional education and development is necessitated
Enterprise
A company, business, firm, partnership, corporation, or governmental agency.
Enterprise Environmental Factors [Output/Input]
Any or all external environmental factors and internal organizational environmental factors that surround or influence the project's success. These factors are from any or all of the enterprises involved in the project, and include organizational culture and structure, infrastructure, existing resources, commercial databases, market conditions, and project management software.
ES
Early Start date
Estimate [Output/Input]
A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome. Usually applied to project costs, resources, effort, and durations and is usually preceded by a modifier (i.e., preliminary, conceptual, feasibility, order-of-magnitude, definitive). It should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g., ±x percent).
Estimate at Completion
BAC / CPI

(Projecting the total cost at completion based on project performance)
Estimate at Completion (EAC) [OutputlInput]
The expected total cost of a schedule activity, a work breakdown structure component, or the project when the defined scope of work will be completed. EAC is equal to the actual cost (AC) plus the estimate to complete (ETC) for all of the remaining work. EAC = AC plus ETC. The EAC may be calculated based on performance to date or estimated by the project team based on other factors, in which case it is often referred to as the latest revised estimate. See also earned value technique and estimate to complete.
Estimate resource requirements
7. Planning
Estimate time and cost
8. Planning
Estimate to Complete (ETC) [Output/Input]
The expected cost needed to complete all the remaining work for a schedule activity, }cork breakdown structure component, or the project. See also earned value technique and estimate at completion.
Estimate to Completion
EAC - AC

(Projecting total cost at completion based on project performance at a given point in time)
estimating publications
commerical reference to help the PM confirm and predict accuracy of estimates
estimations start at zero, with each expense accounted for until a grand total is reached.
traditional bottom-up estimations
ETC
Estimate To Completion

ETC = EAC-AC
EV
Earned Value
evaluation criteria
used to rate and score proposals from sellers
Event
Something that happens, an occurrence, an outcome.
EVM
Earned Value Management
EVT
Earned Value Technique
Exception Report
Document that includes only major variations from the plan (rather than all variations).
Execute
Directing. managing, performing, and accomplishing the project work, providing the deliverables, and providing work performance information.
Execute the PM Plan
2. Executing
Executing
This process allows the project team and vendors to move toward completing the work outlined in the Planning process. The project team moves forward with completing the project work.
Executing Processes [Process Group]
Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to accomplish the project's objectives defined in the project scope statement.
Exit criteria are typically
inspection-specific and are scheduled events in the project schedule
Exit criteria can include many different activities, such as:
Sign-offs from the customer

Regulatory inspections and audits

Quality metrics

Performance metrics

Security audits

The end of a project phase
Exit criterion are
activities or evidence that allow a project to move forward. Stakeholder expectations are universal to the entire project, not just to one project phase.
Expectancy theory
theory that people will work in relation to the expected reward
Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Analysis
A statistical technique that calculates the average outcome when the future includes scenarios that may or may not happen. A common use of this technique is within decision tree analysis. Modeling and simulation are recommended for cost and schedule risk analysis because it is more powerful and less subject to misapplication than expected monetary value analysis.
Expected Monetary Value (Ex$V)
Ex$V = Probability * Value

Value - cost is neg, benefit is positive
Expert Judgment [Technique]
Judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc. as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education. knowledge, skill, experience, or training, and is available from many sources, including: other units within the performing organization; consultants; stakeholders. including customers; professional and technical associations; and industry groups.
expert power
Authority of PM comes from experience
External customers are not key stakeholders in this instance as they are not actively involved in
an internal project
Facilitate conflict resolution
12. Monitoring & Controlling
facillitating processes
Done as needed throughout projects:
quality planning
communications planning
organizational planning
staff acquisition
risk identification
qualitative risk analysis
quantitative risk analysis
risk response planning
procurement planning
solicitation planning
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) [Technique]
An analytical procedure in which each potential failure mode in every component of a product is analyzed to determine its effect on the reliability of that component and, by itself or in combination with other possible failure modes, on the reliability of the product or system and on the required function of the component; or the examination of a product (at the system andlor- lower levels) for all ways that a failure may occur. For each potential failure, an estimate is made of its effect on the total system and of its impact. In addition, a review is undertaken of the action planned to minimize the probability of failure and to minimize its effects.
Failure to adhere to the quality assurance program may result in
rework, penalties, and project delays
fast tracking
doing activities in parallel that are normally done in sequence
A specific project schedule compression technique that changes network logic to overlap phases that would normally be done in sequence, such as the design phase and construction phase, or to perform schedule activities in parallel. See schedule compression and see also crashing.
feedback
a response, or question of clarification, confirmation of having received message
FF
Finish-to-Finish
or
Free Float
FFP
Firm-Fixed-Price
Final build
The prototype of the camera went fairly well. The project team has documented any flaws, and adjustments are being made. The project team is also working with the manufacturer to complete the requirements for materials and packaging. The project is nearing completion.
Final performance reporting
5. Closure
Finalize the "how to execute and control" aspects of all management plans
19. Planning
Finish Date
A point in time associated with a schedule activity's completion. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, baseline, target, or current.
Finish-to-Finish (FF)
The logical relationship where completion of work of the successor activity cannot finish until the completion of work of the predecessor activity. See also logical relationship.
Finish-to-Start (FS)
The logical relationship where initiation of work of the successor activity depends upon the completion of work of the predecessor activity. See also logical relationship.
Firm-Fixed-Price (FFP) Contract
A type of fixed price contract where the hover pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), regardless of the seller's costs.
First build
Management loves the positive information you’ve discovered in the proof-of-concept phase—they’ve set a budget for your project to continue into development. Now you’ll lead your project team through the process of designing and building a video camera according to the specifications from the stakeholders and management. Once the camera is built, your team will test, document, and adjust your camera for usability and feature-support.
fishbone diagram
Ishihawa chart. Cause and effect.
five processes
initiation, planning, execution, control, and closure, are not a series of events, but rather an integrated process, the activities within one process may coincide with an activity within another. For example, a project manager may be working through the execution process to administer the contracts of a vendor while simultaneously working with the vendor through scope verification.
fixed-price contracts
can include an incentive for the seller
Fixed-Price or Lump-Sum Contract
A type of contract involving a fixed total price for a well-defined product. Fixed-price contracts may also include incentives for meeting or exceeding selected project objectives, such as schedule targets. The simplest form of a fixed price contract is a purchase order.
Fixed-Price-Incentive-Fee (FPIF) Contract
A type of' contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), and the seller can earn an additional amount if the seller meets defined performance criteria.
Float
Also called slack. See total float and see also free float.
free: time activity can be delayed without affecting the next
total: time activity can be delayed without affecting the project
project: time activity can be delayed without affecting the customer's expected completion date
flowcharting
chart that illustrates how parts of a system occur in sequence
Flowcharting [Technique]
The depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system.
FMEA
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
FNET, SNET
Finish No Earlier Than, Start No Earlier Than
Follow processes
8. Executing
forcing
conflict resolution method where one person forces their point of view or solution to a conflict
Forecasts
Estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project s future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. Forecasts are updated and reissued based on work performance information provided as the project is executed. The information is based on the project's past performance and expected future performance, and includes information that could impact the project in the future, such as estimate at completion and estimate to complete.
formal power
PM has been assigned by senior management
formally imposed documents
Requirements include the quantified and documented needs, wants, and expectations of the sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders.
Forward Pass
The calculation of the early start and early finish dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. See also schedule network analysis and backward pass.
FPIF
Fixed-Price-Incentive-Fee
fragnets (subnets)
portions of a network diagram that branch off and are not part of the critical path
Free Float (FF)
The amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following schedule activities. See also total float.
FS
Finish-to-Start
Functional
Ideal for organizations with recurring projects, such as manufacturing. Everyone on the project knows who is in charge: the functional manager.
functional environment
A company that organizes itself by job activity, such as sales, accounting, information technology, and other departmental entities is a
Functional Manager
Someone with management authority over an organizational unit within a frntctional organization. The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. Sometimes called a line manager.
Functional Organization
A hierarchical organization where each employee has one clear superior, staff are grouped by areas of specialization, and managed by a person with expertise in that area.
Functional organizations are entities
that have a clear division regarding business units and their associated responsibility
functional structure
have a clear division regarding business units. Weakest project structure. (Hanley Wood)
Funds
A supply of money or pecuniary resources immediately available. Gantt Chart. See bar chart.
Gain formal acceptance of the product
4. Closure
Gain formal approval
22. Planning
GERT
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique. Allows for looping.
Give recognition and rewards
10. Executing
Grade
A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use (e.g., "hammer"), but do not share the sane requirements for quality (e.g., different hammers may need to withstand different amounts of force).
Ground Rules [Tool]
A list of acceptable and unacceptable behaviors adopted by a project team to improve working relationships, effectiveness, and commwiication.
halo effect
assumption that if person is good at technology, they will be good at managing that technology
Hammock Activity
See sw marv activity.
Hand off completed product
8. Closure
Here are some common application areas you may encounter
Legal issues such as contracts, statements of work, regulatory permits, and lawsuits

Technical issues such as IT management, software development, electrical engineering

Engineering requirements such as experience with pharmaceutical companies, civic engineering, or chemical engineering

Manufacturing issues such as product development, automotive, plastics, and others
Here are some general guidelines to know about customizing project processes:
Facilitating processes may be shifted in sequence to meet the demands of the project (such as the timing of the procurement processes).

All processes may not be needed on all projects, but the absence of a project doesn’t mean it wasn’t needed. The project manager and the project team should identify all of the processes required to make the project a successful one.

Projects that are resource dependent may define roles and responsibilities prior to scope creation. This is because the scope of the project may be limited by the availability of the resources to complete the scope.

The processes may be governed by a project constraint. Consider a predetermined deadline, budget, or project scope. The project constraint, such as a deadline, will determine the activity sequencing, the need for resources, risk management, and other processes.

Larger projects require more detail. Remember that projects fail at the beginning, not the end.

Subprojects and smaller projects have more flexibility with the processes based on the process usefulness. For example, a project with a relatively small team may not benefit from an in-depth communications plan the same as a large project with 35 project team members would.
Here are some other examples of management by projects:
Training employees for a new application or business method

Marketing campaigns

The entire sales cycle from product or service introduction, proposal, and sales close

Work completed for a client outside of the organization

Work completed internally for an organization
Hertzberg's Theory of Motivation
Two catalysts: hygiene (lack of presence de-motivational)and motivating agents
heuristic
rule-of-thumb
Historical Information
Documents and data on prior projects including project files, records, correspondence, closed contracts, and closed projects.
Hold kickoff meeting
23. Planning
Hold progress meetings
11. Executing
Identify stakeholders
5. Initiating
Identifying Closing Processes
Closing a project is a wonderful feeling. Project closure has many requirements for it to be successful, however. Project closure requires a final, complete effort by the project manager, the project team, the project stakeholders, and management to officially close the project and move onto other opportunities. The activities in this process are typically associated with the end of a project, but most may also be completed within project phases, as shown in Figure 3-4.
If the deliverables of the phase, or stage, met the predefined metrics
The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities and reporting relationships, as well as creating the staffing m anagentent plan.
Implement approved changes, defect repair, preventive and corrective actions
6. Executing
Implementing Scope Change Control
The project manager must follow the change management plan to ensure unneeded changes to the project scope do not occur. This includes scope creep that the project team may be completing on its own accord. For example, the project team members may be making additional adjustments to the equipment they are installing in a project, even through the project scope does not call for the additional adjustments. Scope change control ensures that the documented procedures to permit changes to scope are followed
Implementing Scope Change Control
Implementing Scope Change Control
Imposed Date
A fixed elate imposed on a schedule activity or schedule milestone, usually in the form of a "start no earlier than" and "finish no later than" date.
In a functional matrix environment
the project team may fluctuate at phases or milestones as they complete their assignments and then move onto other activities within the organization
In most organizations, however, projects may begin
with a feasibility study
In other words, the launch, series of phases, and project completion
comprise the project life cycle
In weak matrix organizations, the project manager has the following attributes:
Limited authority

Management of a part-time project team

Project role is part-time

May be known as a project coordinator or team leader

May have part-time administrative staff to help expedite the project
Index and archive records
6. Closure
indirect costs
costs attributed to costs of doing business. e.g., electricity, overhead
influence diagram
charts out a decision problem
Influence Diagram [Tool]
Graphical representation of situations showing causal influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and outcomes.
Influencer
Persons or groups that are not directly related to the acquisition or use of the project's product, but, due to their position in the customer organization*, can influence, positively or negatively, the course of the project.
Information distribution
To follow the details of the communications management plan; specifically to disperse the required information to the correct parties according to their identified needs and modalities.
Information Distribution [Process]
The process of making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.
initial risk assessment allows the project manager
the project team to determine what high-level risks may influence the feasibility, resources, and requirements to complete the project
Initiating
This process launches the project, or phase. The needs of the organization are identified and alternative solutions are researched. The power to launch the project or phase is given through a project charter, and when initiating the project, the wonderful project manager is selected.
Initiating Processes [Process Group]
Those processes performed to authorize and define the scope of a new phase or project or that can result in the continuation of halted project work. A large number of the initiating processes are typically done outside the project's scope of control by the organization, program, or portfolio processes and those processes provide input to the project's initiating processes group.
Initiating, planning, controlling, executing, and closing
is the correct order of the processes presented
Initiator
A person or organization that has both the ability and authority to start a project.
Input [Process Input]
Any item, whether internal or external to the project that is required by a process before that process proceeds. May be an output from a predecessor process.
Inspect
Before the home owners moved into their new home, they’d want to inspect the house for the quality of the building and confirm its functionality
Inspection [Technique]
Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result or service conforms to specified requirements.
Integral
Essential to completeness: requisite; constituent with; formed as a unit with another component.
Integrated
Interrelated, interconnected, interlocked, or meshed components blended and unified into a functioning or unified whole.
Integrated change control
7. Monitoring & Controlling
To manage change across all facets of the project
Integrated Change Control [Process]
The process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes and controlling changes to deliverables and organizational process assets.
Invitation for Bid (IFB)
Generally, this term is equivalent to request jor proposal. However, in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
Involving the stakeholders in the planning processes
Involving the stakeholders in the planning processes
ISO 9000
method of following procedures by an organization. NOT a quality system
Companies document what they do and do what they document.
Issue
A point or matter in question or in dispute, or a point or matter that is not settled and is under discussion or over which there are opposing views or disagreements.
It has been said that 90 percent of a project manager’s time is
is spent communicating
Iterations - Go Back
16. Planning
JIT
Just-In-Time decreases the inventory investment
Kaizen technologies
small process improvements carried out on a continuous basis
Key Project Stakeholders
Project manager
Project customer
Performing organization
Project team
kill point
like phase gates, are preset times placed in the project when it may, based on conditions and discovery within the phase, be “killed.”
A kill point does not mean the project is killed, just that the potential for termination exists.
Know that each phase
creates a deliverable of some sort and allows the project to move forward if the deliverables meet preset metrics.
Knowledge
Knowing something with the familiarity gained through experience, education, observation, or investigation, it is understanding a process, practice, or technique, or how to use a tool.
Knowledge Area Process
An identifiable project management process within a knowledge area.
known as IPECC
initiation, planning, execution, control, and closure
lag
positive time added to an activity to move it away from the project start date; adding time between activities
A modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the successor activity. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lag, the successor activity cannot start until ten days alter the predecessor activity has finished. See also lead.
Larger projects require more
detail than smaller projects
largest activity a project manager will undertake
Communication, informal and formal, is
Late Finish Date (LF)
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that a schedule activity may be completed based upon the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any constraints assigned to the schedule activities without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project completion date. The late finish dates are determined (luring the backward pass calculation of the project schedule network.
Late Start Date (LS)
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that a schedule activity may begin based upon the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any constraints assigned to the schedule activities without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project completion date. The late start dates are determined during the backward pass calculation of the project schedule network.
Latest Revised Estimate
See estimate at completion.
lead
negative time added to an activity to move it closer to project start date; subtracting time between activities
Lead ['technique]
A modification of a logical relationship that allows an acceleration of the successor activity. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lead, the successor activity can start ten days before the predecessor activity has finished. See also lag. A negative lead is equivalent to a positive lag.
Leading Configuration Management
This process ensures the description of the project’s product is precise, complete, and that it meets the demands of the stakeholder requirements. In addition, configuration management serves as a control agent for changes to the project deliverables. It monitors, guards, and documents changes to the scope. In some projects, configuration management may be the change control system. In other projects, it is part of the change control system.
lessons learned
An ongoing documentation of thing the PM and team have learned throughout the project.
Lessons Learned [Output/Input]
The learning gained from the process of performing the project. Lessons learned may be identified at any point. Also considered a project record, to be included in the lessons learned knowledge base.
Lessons Learned Knowledge Base
A store of historical information and lessons learned about both the outcomes of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance.
Letter of Intent
expresses intent of buyer to procure from seller. not a contract
Level of Effort (LOE)
Support-type activity (e.g., seller or customer liaison, project cost accounting, project management, etc.), which does not produce definitive end products. It is generally characterized by a uniform rate of work performance over a period of time determined by the activities supported.
Leveling
See resource leveling. Life Cycle. See project life cycle.
LF
Late Finish date
lines of communications
=n(n-1)
------
2
n = number of stakeholders
LOE
Level of Effort
Log
A document used to record and describe or denote selected items identified during execution of a process or activity. Usually used with a modifier, such as issue, quality control, action, or defect.
Logical Relationship
A dependency between two project schedule activities, or between a project schedule activity and a schedule milestone. See also precedence relationship. The four possible types of logical relationships are: Finish-to-Start: Finish-to-Finish; Start­to-Start; and Start-lo-Finish.
look to your company’s quality assurance policy or quality program
such as ISO 9000 or Six Sigma
LS
Late Start date
main sources of conflict (7)
1. Schedule
2. Project priority
3. Resources
4. Techinical opinions
5. Administrative processes
6. Cost
7. Personality
Manage Project Team [Process]
The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and coordinating changes to enhance project performance.
Manage reserves
10. Monitoring & Controlling
Manage Stakeholders [Process]
The process of managing communications to satisfy the requirements of, and resolve issues with, project stakeholders.
management by projects
Organizations that manage operations as projects.
An organization that uses projects to move the company forward is
Managing Cost Control
Controlling the project’s cost requires accurate estimates and then a check and balance against those estimates. Procurement management, cash flow, and fundamental accounting practices are required. Though cost control is dependent on project expenses, it also hinges on hidden and fluctuating expenses such as shipping, exchange rates for international projects, travel, and incidentals. Thus, accurate and thorough record keeping is imperative.
Managing has to do with consistently producing key results
that are expected by stakeholders
Managing project procurement includes
Planning for project procurement

Planning for solicitation

Management Project solicitation

Selecting vendors

Managing and creating procurement documents

Administering and closing project contracts
Mapping to Quality Assurance
As the project work continues, the project team and the project manager will need to verify that the project work results are mapping to the organization’s quality assurance program as described in the quality management plan. Failure to adhere to the quality assurance program may result in rework, penalties, and project delays, as shown in the following illustration
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
1. Physiological
2. Safety
3. Social
4. Esteem
5. Self-actualization
Master Schedule [Tool]
A summary-level project schedule that identifies the major deliverables and work breakdown structure components and key schedule milestones. See also milestone schedule.
Materiel
The aggregate of things used by an organization in any undertaking, such as equipment, apparatus, tools, machinery, gear, material, and supplies.
Matrix Organization
Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the fimctional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of persons assigned to the project.
Matrix structures are
organizations that have a blend of departmental duties and employees together on a common project. Matrix structures allow for project team members to be from multiple departments working toward the project completion. In these instances, the project team members have more than one boss. Depending on the number of projects a team member is participating in, they may have to report to multiple project managers as well as their functional manager.
McGregor's Theory of X & Y
X = lazy, need to be micromanaged "Gen X"
Y = motivated, self-led
Measure according to the management plans
2. Monitoring & Controlling
Measure against the performance measurement baselines
1. Monitoring & Controlling
Measure team member performance
13. Monitoring & Controlling
Media selection
There are multiple choices when it comes to sending a message. Which one is appropriate? Based on the audience and the message being sent, the media should be in alignment. In other words, an ad-hoc hallway meeting is probably not the best communication avenue to explain a large variance in the project schedule
Meeting management
Meetings are forms of communication. How the meeting is led, managed, and controlled all influence the message being delivered. Agendas, minutes, and order are mandatory for effective communications within a meeting.
Methodology
A system of practices, techniques. procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline.
milestone
A significant point in the schedule that allows stakeholders to see progress. Deliverables are often called milestones.
A summary-level schedule that identifies the major schedule milestones. See also master schedule.
Milestones are not completed by the project manager
but by the project team. In addition, milestones are the results of activities, not activities themselves.
mitigation
reducing probability or impact of a risk
Money already spent on a project is called
sunk costs
Monitor
Collect project performance data with respect to a plan, produce performance measures, and report and disseminate performance information.
Monitor and Control Project Work [Process]
The process of monitoring and controlling the processes required to initiate, plan, execute, and close a project to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan and project scope statement.
Monitoring Risk Response
Risk management requires risk ownership and monitoring by the project team members. As activities in the PND are completed, the project manager and the risk owners must pay special attention to the possible risks and the mitigation plans that may come into play. Risk responses, should they be acted on, may cause secondary risks, cost increases, and schedule delays. Risk response must be rapid and thorough—and their outcomes well-documented for historical reference for downstream activities and other projects.

On the Job Risk response may also include risk impact statements that detail project risk, its possible impact on the project, and its probability. The project manager and management sign the risk impact statement for each identified risk beyond a predetermined score.
Monte Carlo analysis
predicts how scenarios may work out given any number of variables
A technique that computes, or iterates, the project cost or project schedule many times using input values selected at random from probability distributions of possible costs or durations, to calculate a distribution of possible total project cost or completion dates.
Near-Critical Activity
A schedule activity that has low total float. The concept of near-critical is equally applicable to a schedule activity or schedule network path. The limit below which total float is considered near critical is subject to expert judgment and varies from project to project.
Negotiating Project Terms and Conditions
Project managers must negotiate for the good of the project. In any project, the project manager, the project sponsor, and the project team will have to negotiate with stakeholders, vendors, and customers to reach a level of agreement acceptable to all parties involved in the negotiation process. In some instances, typically in less than pleasant circumstances, negotiations may have to proceed with assistance. Specifically, mediation and arbitration are examples of assisted negotiations. Negotiation proceedings typically center on:
Negotiation proceedings typically center on
Priorities

Technical approach

Project scope

Schedule

Cost

Changes to the project scope, schedule, or budget

Vendor terms and conditions

Project team member assignments and schedules

Resource constraints, such as facilities, travel issues, and team members with highly specialized skills

Exam Watch
net present value (NPV)
NPV > 1 is good
Network Logic
The collection of schedule activit}:' dependencies that makes up a project schedule network diagram.
Network Loop
A schedule network path that passes the same node twice. Network loops cannot be analyzed using traditional schedule network analysis techniques such as critical path method.
Network Open End
A schedule activity without any predecessor activities or successor activities creating an unintended break in a schedule network path. Network open ends are usually caused by missing logical relationships.
Network Path
Any continuous series of schedule activities connected with logical relationships in a project schedule network diagram.
Networking [Technique]
Developing relationships with persons who may be able to assist in the achievement of objectives and responsibilities.
Node
One of the defining points of a schedule network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other dependency lines. See also arrow diagramming method and precedence diagramming method.
Objective
Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, or a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed.
OBS
Organizational Breakdown Structure
OD
Original Duration
of all of the project phases within a project
determine if it is feasible for a project to exist
On large or high-profile projects, the project manager may be working with a Change Control Board (CCB
to determine if changes should be approved and factored into a project scope
On the Job
Every industry has some standards and regulations. Knowing which ones affect your project before you begin your work will not only help the project to unfold smoothly, but will also allow for effective risk analysis. In some instances, the requirements of regulations can afford the project manager additional time and monies to complete a project.
On the Job
Stakeholder analysis allows the project manager and the project team to determine the expectations of the customer. If the customer doesn’t know what their expectations are, the project manager cannot decide for them. The project manager and the customer must be in agreement with what the project should create before the creation begins.
On the Job
Business reasons for why a project is created depend on your business objectives. If you’re pitching a project to management, address the most prevalent business needs first. So first, from a business perspective, answer the following question: “Why is this important to my organization?”
On the Job
Being able to recognize your organizational structure in regard to project management will allow you to leverage and position your role as a project manager effectively
On the Job
In high-profile projects, where stakeholders will be in conflict over the project purpose, deliverables, cost, and schedule, the project manager may want to use the Delphi Technique to gain anonymous consensus among stakeholders. The Delphi Technique allows stakeholders to offer opinions and input without fear of retribution from management.
Once the need has been identified
a feasibility study is called for to determine if the need can realistically be met.
operational definitions
quantifiable terms and values used to measure something
Operational transfer
The project is complete. Your team has successfully designed, built, and moved into production, a wonderful, affordable video camera. Each phase of the project allowed the camera to move towards completion. As the project came closer and closer to moving into operations, risk and project fluctuation waned
Operations
An organizational function performing the ongoing execution of activities that produce the same product or provide a repetitive service. Examples are: production operations, manufacturing operations, and accounting operations.
Opportunity
A condition or situation favorable to the project, a positive set of circumstances, a positive set of events, a risk that will have a positive impact on project objectives, or a possibility for positive changes. Contrast with threat.
order of magnitude estimate
used during Initiating process and in top-down estimates. Variance -25 to +75
Ordinal scales
descriptive value
low to high
Organization
A group of persons organized for some purpose or to perform some type of 't'o'k within an enterprise.
Organization Chart [Tool]
A method for depicting interrelationships among a group of persons working together toward a common objective.
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OHS) [Tool]
A hierarchically organized depiction of the project organization arranged so as to relate the work packages to the perfor fining organizational units, (Sometimes OBS is written as Organization Breakdown Structure with the same definition.)
Organizational culture includes
Purpose

Values

Organization policies and procedures

Type of business

Maturity of business
organizational interfaces
most difficult to work with
Organizational planning
To determine the project roles and responsibility. This also determines the reporting structure between the project manager, the project team, and management.
Organizational planning is the facilitating planning process
which defines roles and responsibilities—and the reporting structure within the project.
Organizational Process Assets [Outputllnput]
Any or all process related assets, from any or all of the organizations involved iii the project that are or can be used to influence the project's success. These process assets include formal and informal plans, policies, procedures, and guidelines. The process assets also include the organizations' knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical irrfirrrrrcrtiorr.
Organizational structures
control how the project manager can obtain resources, the level of authority the project manager can expect, and the participation of the project team
Original Duration (OD)
The activity duration originally assigned to a schedule activity and not updated as progress is reported on the activity. Typically used for comparison with actual duration and remaining duration when reporting schedule progress.
Ouchi's Theory Z
Workers will work if they are challenged and motivated
Output [Process Output]
A product, result, or service generated by a process. May be an input to a successor process.
Overseeing Change Control
The project manager must protect the project scope from unneeded change. Needed changes must be proven, documented, and analyzed for impacts on cost, schedule, and risks. The project manager must work within the confines of the change control plan and follow its guidelines regarding change requests, change approval or denials, and documentation. Overseeing change control may involve a Change Control Board that reviews, approves, or rejects the proposed changes for the project
paralingual
the pitch, tone, and inflection in the sender's voice affect message being sent
Parametric Estimating [Technique]
An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g.. square footage in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate an estimate for activityparameters, such as scope. cost, budget, and duration. This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication and the underlying data built into the model. An example for the cost parameter is multiplying the planned quantity of work to be performed by the historical cost per unit to obtain the estimated cost.
parametric modeling
This formula works well with price per unit, like cost per square foot, cost per metric, and so on. In many instances, the proposed project may have widely different costs, and aspects that have never been completed before.
Pareto Chart [Tool]
A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause.
Pareto diagrams
80/20 rule: 80% of problems come from 20% of issues. Histogram. Illustrates problems by cause, from smallest to largest.
Parkinson's Law
"Work expends to fill the time alloted."
Path Convergence
The merging or joining of parallel schedule network paths into the same node in a project schedule network diagram. Path convergence is characterized by a schedule activity with more than one predecessor activity.
Path Divergence
Extending or generating parallel schedule network paths from the same node in a project schedule network diagram. Path divergence is characterized by a schedule activity with more than one successor activity.
PC or PCT
Percent Complete
An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a stork breakdown structure component.
PDM: Precedence Diagramming Method
most common method of arranging project work
Perform Quality Assurance (QA) [Process]
The process of applying the planned, systematic quality activities (such as audits or peer reviews) to ensure that the project employs all processes needed to meet requirements
Perform Quality Control (QC) [Process]
The process of monitoring specific project results* to determine whether they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance.
Performance Measurement Baseline
An approved integrated scope-schedule-cost* plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance. Technical and quality parameters may also be included.
Perform Quality Assurance (QA) [Process]
The process of applying the planned, systematic quality activities (such as audits or peer reviews) to ensure that the project employs all processes needed to meet requirements
Perform Quality Control (QC) [Process]
The process of monitoring specific project results* to determine whether they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance.
Performance Measurement Baseline
An approved integrated scope-schedule-cost* plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance. Technical and quality parameters may also be included.
Performance reporting
To determine variances, project performance, and forecasting of project outcome.
The process of collecting and distributing performance information. This includes status reporting, progress measurement, and forecasting.
Performance Reports [Output/Input]
Documents and presentations that provide organized and summarized work performance information, earned value management parameters and calculations, and analyses of project work progress and status. Common formats for performance reports include bar charts, S-curves, histograms, tables, and project schedule network diagram showing current schedule status.
Performing Organization
The enterprise whose personnel are most directly involved in doing the work of the project.
On your project, you’ll have a project team. Who do the team members work for? The performing organization is the entity that employs the people responsible for completing the prject work. In some instances, the performing organization can be a vendor whose project team is completing the project work for another entity, the customer.
PERT
Program Evaluation and Review Technique -- scheduling tool using weighted averages.

O + 4ML + P / 6, where

O = Optimistic
P = Pessimistic
ML = Most Likely
PF
Planned Finish date
Plan Contracting [Process]
The process of documenting the products, services, and results requirements and identifying potential sellers.
Plan Purchases and Acquisitions [Process]
The process of determining what to purchase or acquire, and determining when and how to do so.
Planned Finish Date (PF)
See scheduled finish date. Planned Start Date (PS). See scheduled start date.
Planned Value (Budgetd Cost of Work Scheduled)
Percent planned complete * BAC
Planned Value (PV)
The authorized budget assigned to the scheduled work to be accomplished for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Also referred to as the budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS).
Planning
Can you guess what this process is all about? The planning process requires the project manager and the project team to develop the various core and subsidiary management plans necessary for project completion. This process is one of the most important pieces of project management
Planning
Project objectives are determined, as well as how to reach those objectives with the given constraints
Planning is
iterative.
Planning is the iterative process evident
throughout the project
Planning Package
A WBS component below the control account with known work content but without detailed schedule activities. See also control account.
Planning Processes [Process Group]
Those processes performed to define and mature the project scope, develop the project management plan. and identify and schedule the project activities* that occur within the project.
Planning, executing, and controlling are
tightly integrated
PM
Project Management
PM
Project Manager
PMBOK
Project Management Body of Knowledge
PMBOK Guide
Includes all the knowledge and practices for project management.
PMIS
Project Management Information System. E.g., MS Project
PMIS
Project Management Information System
PMO
Project Management Office
PMO
Program Management Office
PMP
Project Management Professional
PO
unilateral form of contract
Portfolio
A collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. The projects or programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related.
Portfolio Management [Technique]
The centralized management of one or more portfolios, which includes identifying, prioritizing, authorizing, managing, and controlling projects, programs, and other related work, to achieve specific strategic business objectives,
Position Description [Tool]
An explanation of a project team member's roles and responsibilities.
powers of PM (5)
formal -- based on authority, reward, penalty, expert -- being knowledgable, referent -- inferred to PM by team members.
None
Expert & reward are best; penalty worst
Practice
A specific type of professional or management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that may employ one or more techniques and tools.
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) [Technique]
A schedule network diagramming technique in which schedule activities are represented by boxes (or nodes). Schedule activities are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.
Precedence Relationship
The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship. In cut-rent usage, however, precedence relationship, logical relationship, and dependency are widely used interchangeably, regardless of the diagramming method used.
Predecessor Activity