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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
why should you study programming languages?
increased capacity to express ideas
improved background for choosing appropriate languages
increased ability to learn a new language
better understanding of the significance of implementation
better use of an already known language
overall advancement of computing
What are ways to evaluate a programming language
readability
overall simplicity
orthogonality
data types
syntax design
writability
reliability
cost
What is the basic architecture of computers called?
von Neumann architecture
What happens in a von Neumann computer
data and programs are stored in the same memory
What are the four categorizes a programming language may be placed in
imperative, functional, logic, object-oriented
what are some of the conflicting criteria in a programming language
reliability and cost of execution
writability and reliability
What is the von Neumann bottleneck
When instructions are executed faster than they can be moved to the processor for execution
What is the primary factor of the slowness of interpretive systems
lack of floating-point hardware in the available computers in the 40's and 50's. all had to be done in simulated software
Who created the first compiled high-level language
Alick E. Glennie || Laning and Zierler (MIT)
What system was the first algebraic translation to be implemented
Laning and Zielrler system
What does Fortran stand for
Formula Translating System
What was the first application for AI
LISP
What programming language is of central importance to any historical study of languages
ALGOL 60
What does COBOL stand for
Common buisness oriented language
What does BASIC stand for
Beginner's all-purpose symbolic instruction code
What does Fortran stand for
Formula Translating System
What was the first application for AI
LISP
What programming language is of central importance to any historical study of languages
ALGOL 60
What does COBOL stand for
Common buisness oriented language
What does BASIC stand for
Beginner's all-purpose symbolic instruction code
What is the most extensive and expensive language design effort
Ada; United States Department of Defense
What was the first language that fully supported object-oriented programming
Smalltalk
what is syntax?
the form of a programming language's expressions, statements, and program units
what is semantics?
the meaning of a programming language's expressions, statement, and program units
what is lexemes
the lowest level syntactic units
what is a token
a category of a lexeme
what is used to describe the formal language-generation mechanism
grammar
What is BNF. and what does it stand for
It is a natural notation for describing syntax. Backus-Naur Form
What is operational semantics
describes the meaning of a statement or program by specifying the effects of running it on a machine
what is dynamic semantics
the meaning of expressions, statements, and program units of a programming language
what is denotational semantics
describes the meaning of programs based on recursive function theory
What is the weakest precondition
the least restrictive precondition that will guarantee the validity of the associated precondition
what is parsing
the process of analyzing syntax
what is a top down parser
traces or builds a tree in preorder
what is a bottom up parser
constructs a parse tree by beginning at the leaves and progressing towards the root
what are some problems that may occur in parsing
parsing algorithms that work with any unambiguous grammar are complicated and inefficient. The complexity is O(n3)
what is a name
a string of characters used to identify some entity in a program
what is a keyword
a word of a programming language that is special only in certain contexts
What are the three extensions included in EBNF
brackets, braces, OR operators
what is static semantics
has to do with legal forms of programs