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18 Cards in this Set

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Imperative Languages?
Programming in terms of state and statements that change the program state. procedure oriented.

EX: COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL
Functional Languages?
Treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions.

EX: LISP, SCHEME, SML, HASKALL
Logical Languages?
Rules based language. System chooses order of execution.


EX: PROLOG
Criteria for Languages?
READABILITY
WRITABILITY
RELIABILITY
Writability?
Is a measure of how easily a language can be used to crate programs for a chosen problem domailn

Simplicity/Orthogonality
Control Structures
Data Types
Syntax Design
Abstraction
Expressivity
Readability?
Ease which programs can be read and understood.

Simplicity
Control Structures
Data types
Syntax Design
Reliability?
A program is said to be reliable if it performs to its specifications under all conditions.

Readability+Writability+
Type Checking
Exception Handling
Restricted Aliasing
Cost of a program?
Training Programmers
Writing programs in the language
Cost of compiling programs
cost of executing programs
(IE: Optimization compiliation cost vs speed)
Free compiler
Cost poor reliability
Portability
Generality
Computer Architecture:
Memory <==>
Control Unit->
Arithmetic and logic unit
OOP
Object Oriented Programming Languages.


EX: C++, JAVA, RUBY
Benifits of Imperative Languages
The sequential execution of instructions

The use of variables representing memory locations

Use of Assignments to change the values of variables

Features: Variables, Assignment Statements, Iteration

COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, C
Benifits of Functional Languages
Recursive function theory
No notation of variables
Functions, Function Calls

LISP, SCHEME, ML, HASCALL, MIRANDA
Benifits of Logical Languages
Rule-Based
Statements are not executed in any order, machine chooses order

No loops, abstractions

Based on Symbolic Logic
Object-Oriented Languages
Object is a collection of memory locations

Classes are defined using declarations

Objects are instances of a class

JAVA, C++, C#, SMALLTALK
RELIABILITY VS COST OF EXECUTION
Either check everything or faster compiletimes(CHEAPER)
Load Module
Executable Image
Linking And Loading
Process of collecting system program and linking them to user program
Fetch-execute-Cycle
Von Neumann Architecture