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57 Cards in this Set

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What is Craft Production? What was the problem with it?
Craft production: handcrafting each product made.
Problems: no standardization, non-interchangeable parts because each part was unique
Who first developed mass production techniques?
Henry Ford
What is the key to mass production?
What does this make possible?
Interchangeable parts

Assembly line
What are some characteristics of the mass production work environment?
-unskilled workers
-expensive, single purpose machines
-high productivity, low cost
-low product variety
-standardized products
What did W. Edwards Demming do?
Convinced the Japanese of the importance of quality, and taught them how to achieve it.
Who is the "Father of JIT"?
Taiichi Ohno of Toyota
List some advantages of Lean vs. Mass production
- half workforce, space needed, investment in tools, engineering hours
-a fraction of the inventory
-few defects
What does a team charter do?
It determines what the team will do and how they will do it.
What is included in the value stream?
Everything between the supplier and the customer.
All steps, value added, non value added, and necessary but non-value added
What is the best way to start creating a V.S. Map?
Walk around the facility and see for yourself (data and interviews are usually wrong)
VSM helps visualize sources of ____ and _____
waste and bottlenecks
When mapping, you should focus on a _____ rather than mapping the whole plant
product family
What is a product family?
Products that go through similar paths in terms of processes and equipment.
What goes in a process data box on a value stream map?
Cycle time, changeover time, uptime, available time
What is work content?
I have no idea but I should learn before thursday
What is Kaizen?
Continuous improvements - used to find hidden waste
What is 5S?
The idea that everything has a place, and should be there,clean and ready to use.
What is autonomation?
Automation with a human touch
Benchmarking
An approach to identifying a world-class process, then gathering information and applying it within your own company.
Buffer inventory
Finished goods available to meet variations in customer femand due to fluctuations in ordering patters or takt time
Cycle time
Time elapsed from beginning to end of a process
Extended team members
People who provide skills to the core implementation team, but don't help implement
Heijunka
a.k.a load leveling. Balancing the amount of work to be done in a shift with a capacity to complete the work
Heijunka box
Physical device for implementing Heijunka. It is divided into slots of pitch increment
Jidoka
Practical use of autonomation to mistake proof the detection of defects. Uses autonomation to promote flow.
JIT
Customers recieve only what is neeeded, just when it is needed in the exact amounts needed.
Kaizen
Small daily improvements performed by everyone with the goal of eliminating waste.
Kanban
An inventory control card at the heart of a pull system
Goal of lean
Minimizing waste, maximizing flow
Location indicator
A visual workplace element that shows where an item belongs
Muda
aka waste - anything in a v.s. that adds cost or time without adding value
Pack out quantity
A small batch equal to the number of parts that can be moved throughout the value stream to ensure an efficient flow.
Pitch
The amount of time require for an upstream operation to release a predetermined pack out quantity of WIP to a downstream operation.
Project champion
The person with the authority and responsibility to allocate teh organization's resources during the life of the project.
Red tag
A label in 5S that identifies something unneeded or in the wrong place.
Runner
A worker who ensures that pitch is maintained
Safety inventory
Finished goods able to meet customer demand when internal constraints or inefficiencies disrupt process flow.
Standardized work
An agreed upon method for a procedure, maximizing human performance
Supermarket
A system used to store a set level of finished goods inventory of WIP and replenish what is pulled to fulfill customer orders. Used when continuous flow can not be done.
Takt image
The vision of an ideal state in which you have eliminated waste and improved the performance of the value stream to the point that it is possible to achieve one piece flow
Takt time
The time req'd between completion of successive units of end product.

Takt = time available for production / total customer requirement
What goes in a team charter?
Mission, team member roles, scope of team's responsibility, list of metrics and targets, list of deliverables
Total cycle time
Total of the cycle times for each operation
What are the 5 steps in 5S?
Sort, Set in order, Shine, Standardize, sustain
What are the 7 deadly wastes?
Over-production, inventory, motion, transportation, waiting, over processing, (scrap, rework and defects)
If demand for your product decreases, what do you do to takt time?
Decrease takt and then you may need to fire or move employees.
What are the 3 tasks of value stream management?
Problem solving, information management, and physical transformation
Within 5S, what is the purpose of "Sustain"?
To ensure that all 5S policies are upheld on a daily basis and between shifts
What are some activities to be done while sorting (in 5S)?
Separate necessary from unecessary
Remove clutter
Labeling
Shadow boards
Why would one use Jidoka over typical Statistical Quality control?
It is more likely to inspect 100% and catch ANY defect.
What is Poke-Yoke?
Finding and correct problems as close to the source as possible.
-mistake proofing the process or product
What is maintainability?

What is the formula for Mean time to repair?
How quick and easy it is to maintain and repair equipment

MTTR = sum of all downtimes for repair/number of repairs
What is reliability?

What is the formula for mean time between failures?
Probability equipment will perform properly during normal operation

MTBF = Total running time/number of failures
What is availability?

What is formula for Availability?
Proportion of time equipment is actually availabile to use out of time it should be available

A = operating time/planned prod. time
A = (MTBF - MTTR)/MTBF
What is performance efficiency?
Pieces produced/(operating time*designpieces/unit time)
What is Quality Rate?
% of good parts out of total number produced
What is overall equipment effectiveness?
OEE = Availability*Performance efficiency*Qualityrate