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56 Cards in this Set

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Why is urolithiasis a bigger problem in castrated males?
Castrated males have a smaller urethra.
What anatomical location are stones most likely to get lodged in swine or cattle?
Distal penile urethra
Sigmoid flexure
What anatomical location are stones most likely to get lodged in small ruminants?
Urethral process
Sigmoid flexure
True or false:
It is common for production animals to have their ureter or renal pelvis obstructed
False
True or false:
Urinary tract infection is usually associated with urolithiasis
False
Type of calculi with the best prognosis?
Struvites
Type of calculi that dissolve in acidic solutions?
Struvites
Most common type of calculi in feedlot animals and small ruminants on concentrates or alfalfa?
Struvites
Least common type of calculi in production animals?
Oxalate
Bead-like calculi with a poor prognosis?
Calcium carbonate
Type of calculi common in ruminants grazing on sandy soil or on poor roughage diets?
Silicate
Also caused by drinking silica containing water
Type of calculi that have sharp edges and can cause laceration and urethral rupture?
Silicate
Poor prognosis
True or false:
Struvite and silicate calculi both dissolve in acidic solutions
False! Only struvites dissolve in acidic solutions.
Clinical signs of obstructive urolithiasis?
Pain, lethargy
Straining to urinate
Inappetence
Hematuria
Crystal formation on preputial hair
Post-renal azotemia
Acid-base and electrolyte derangements
Possible sequella of obstructive urolithiasis?
Urethral rupture
Bladder rupture
What serum chemistry values are commonly seen in cases of obstructive urolithiasis?
Azotemia
Electrolyte derangements
Acid-base derangements
Hemoconcentration
Which type of calculi is most visible on radiographs?
Calcium carbonate
How can you decide if the urinary bladder has ruptured?
Perform an abdominocentesis.
Fluid may smell uremic
Test the fluid for creatinine. If fluid creatinine is twice as high plasma creatinine, it's a ruptured bladder.
What are preoperative considerations when treating urinary obstruction?
Administer fluids if needed (but avoid rupturing the bladder. Do cystocentesis or perineal urethrostomy if needed)
Evaluate kidneys via ultrasound and look for calculi and hydronephrosis
Evaluate the urethral process in small ruminants
Use NSAIDS with caution because of nephrotoxicity
Abx that concentrate in the urine (procaine penicillin, ampicillin, potentiated sulfonamides, ceftiofur)
For intact males, how long should they recover after sx for obstructive urolithiasis before they can be used for breeding again?
2 months of sexual rest is required
What dietary modification should be made for an animal that is diagnosed and treated for struvites?
No alfalfa hay, no grain, only very little concentrated feed
Vegetables and fruits can be used as treats.
Give free access to water at all times
Add salt to feed to increase water intake and diuresis
What dietary modification should be made for an animal that has silicate stones?
Hay and water tested for silicate, and only feed low silicate feed.
Give free access to water at all times
Add salt to feed to increase water intake and diuresis
What dietary modification should be made for an animal that has calcium carbonate stones?
Decrease Ca intake by testing feed
Give free access to water at all times
Add salt to feed to increase water intake and diuresis
What can you give to acidify the urine?
Periodic feeding/oral administration of ammonium chloride (450 mg/kg QD for 7 days once a month)
What surgical procedures can be done to treat urinary obstruction?
Urethral process amputation (small ruminants)
Penile amputation (usually bovines)
Perineal urethrostomy
Ischial urethrostomy
Ischial urethrotomy
Targeted urethrotomy
Cystotomy
Tube cystotomy
Bladder marsupalization
What muscles are transected during penile amputation?
Retractor penis muscles
True or false:
Perineal urethrostomy is a procedure with very good long term outcome.
False! This is a salvage procedure.
Which procedure would you use to relieve a urinary obstruction if it was important to preserve the animal's ability to breed?
Ischial urethrotomy
Urethral process amputation
Targeted urethrotomy
True or false:
Breeding ability is likely to be retained if incision into the urethra is avoided.
True
What surgical approach do you use when performing a cystotomy?
Caudal paramedian or caudal midline approach
What is the most commonly performed procedure for obstructive urolithiasis in small ruminants, camelids, and potbelly pigs?
Tube cystotomy
True or false:
Breeding ability is retained after bladder marsupalization.
True
What is preputial prolapse?
Eversion of the lamina interna of the prepuce.
Most common in polled English breeds, and Bos Indicus related breeds due to lack of development of the retractor preputii muscles or due to an excessively pendulous prepuce.
What is the conservative treatment for preputial prolapse?
Local or systemic abx
Hydrotherapy
Local wound lavage
Moisturizing ointment
Pressure wrap around prepuce with urine tube into preputial cavity
2-4 months sexual rest
What are the surgical treatment options for preputial prolapse and when would you choose surgical treatment?
Circumcision
Preputial amputation (salvage procedure)
Surgical treatment is chosen if scarring or stricture occurs or if medical treatment is unsuccessful or if prolapse recurs.
How do you treat strictures due to scarring after preputial surgery?
Incise the scars in a direction longitudinal to the shaft of the penis and re-appose the incised tissue in a transverse direction, which results in a wider lumen of the preputial lamina.
What is a possible sequel to preputial prolapse, laceration, and penile hematoma?
Preputial abscess
What is the best way to drain a preputial abscess?
Drain the abscess into the preputial cavity to prevent adhesion formation to the skin
What is the most common location for a tear in the tunica albuginea to occur?
A transverse tear on the dorsum of the distal bend of the sigmoid flexure (opposite to the retractor penis muscle insertion) is the most common location for a tear to occur in the tunica albuginea (causes penile hematoma)
What are the clinical signs of penile hematoma?
Differentials?
Large, firm swelling cranial to the scrotum, centered around the penis.
+/- paraphimosis, preputial prelapse
Signs of pain are uncommon
Paracentesis: blood (Perform sterilely!!)
Ddx:
Prepucial abscess
Urethral rupture
Abdominal hernia
When is it appropriate to do conservative treatment for a penile hematoma?
Only in bulls with limited value!
Or if the injury is older than 14 days
Or if the hematoma is less than 15 cm in diameter

Treatment is hydrotherapy, manual massage, 90 days sexual rest, and abx and NSAIDs as needed.
When is the best time to do surgical treatment for penile hematoma?
3-5 days after the injury
This is the best choice for hematomas > 15 cm
Good prognosis for surgical treatment (up to 80% breed again)
Complications of penile hematoma?
Recurrence
Abscess formation
Adhesion formation
Damage to dorsal nerve of the penis
Venous shunting
True or false:
Persistent frenulum is a heritable problem
True! Do not breed these animals, unless the offspring will only be for meat.
True or False:
If animals are under anesthesia there is no need for a local block when performing castration.
False! Always use local. It's nicer for the animal, and makes your job easier.
5-10 ml/testicle
What are three different methods of incising into the scrotum when performing a castration?
Removal of lower 1/3 of scrotum, or
Incise along back or side of scrotum, or
Newberry knife
If you perform an open castration, what should you make sure to remove, in addition to the testes?
The vaginal tunic
Possible complications of castration?
Hydrocele - due to inadequate removal of the vaginal tunic
Hemorrhage
Infection
What are two non-surgical meathods of castration?
Emasculatome (Burdizzo instrument) - Crushes the spermatic cord without breaking the skin
Elastrator bands - only for newborn calves, lambs, kids
How do you perform castration in piglets (< 2 weeks old), small pigs, and adult boars?
Piglets: scrotal incision, transect with steady traction
Small pigs: Inguinal incision, transect with traction
Adult boars: general anesthesia, 2 scrotal incisions, ligate spermatic cords
What is the "twist and tack" technique?
If there is an inguinal herniation this technique is used.
1. Twist the testicle in the vaginal tunic
2. Ligate the spermatic chord over the vaginal tunic, using a transfixation ligature
3. Tack it to the external abdominal oblique muscle
True or false:
When castrating camelids you can leave the incision open or close it primarily.
True
What is the most common location to find a cryptorchid testicle in cattle?
Subcutaneously or inguinally.
Abdominal location is less common (requires flank incision to remove)
True or false:
Cryptorchid testes produce functional sperm.
False
Where are you likely to find a cryptorchid testicle in a goat?
Can be anywhere between the caudal pole of the kidney and the subcutaneous inguinal area.
For abdominal testicles, a parainguinal, ventral midline, or flank approach can be used.
Where are you most likely to find cryptorchid testes in a camelid? What approach should be used?
Most cryptorchid testes in camelids are located within the abdomen and a parainguinal incision is preferred.