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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
brightness
The color attribute that determines how dark or light a color appears on the
monochrome television screen or how much light the color reflects. Also called lightness.
camcorder
A portable camera with the VTR attached or built into it to form a single unit.
camera chain
The television camera (head) and associated electronic equipment, including the camera control unit, sync generator, and power supply.
camera control unit (CCU)
Equipment, separate from
the camera head, that contains various video controls, including registration, color
balance, contrast, and brightness, that enable the video operator to adjust the camera picture during a show.
camera head
The actual television camera, which is at the head of a chain of essential electronic accessories. It is composed of the imaging device, lens, and viewfinder. In ENG/EFP cameras, the camera head contains all the elements of the camera chain.
charge-coupled device (CCD)
The imaging device in a television camera. Usually called
the chip.
chip
A common name for the camera imaging device. Technically, it is known as the
charge-coupled device (CCD). The chip consists of a great number of imaging sensing
elements, called pixels, that translate the optical (light) image into an electronic video
signal. Also called the camera pickup device.
chrominance channel
The color (chroma) channels within the color camera. A separate
chrominance channel is responsible for each of the three basic color signals: red, green,and blue.
contrast ratio
The difference between the brightest and the darkest spots in the picture (often measured by reflected light in foot-candles). The optimal contrast ratio for analog cameras is normally 40:1 or slightly higher, which means that the brightest spot in the picture should not be more than forty times brighter than the darkest spot. For DTV it can exceed this ratio, depending on the quality of the camera.
ENG/EFP cameras and camcorders
High-quality portable field production cameras. When the camera is docked with a VTR, or has a VTR built into it, it is called a camcorder.
gain
Electronic amplification of the video signal.
HDTV camera
Studio camera that delivers pictures of superior resolution, color fidelity, and light-and-dark contrast; uses a high-quality CCD as its imaging device.
hue
One of the three basic color attributes; hue is the color itself-red, green, yellow, and
so on.
luminance channel
A separate channel within color cameras that deals with brightness
variations and allows them to produce a signal receivable on a black- and-white
television. The luminance signal is usually electronically derived from the chrominance
signals.
moiré effect
Color vibrations that occur when narrow, contrasting stripes of a design
interfere with the scanning lines of the television system.
operating light level
Amount of light needed by the camera to produce a video signal.
pixel
Short for picture element. A single imaging element (like the single dot in a
newspaper picture) that can be identified by a computer. The more pixels, the higher the
picture quality.
resolution
The characteristic of a camera that determines the sharpness of the picture
received. The lower a camera's resolution, the Jess fine picture detail it can show.
Resolution is influenced by the imaging device, the lens, and the television set that shows
the camera picture.
saturation
The color attribute that describes a color's richness or strength.
signal-to-noise (SIN) ratio
The relation of the strength of the desired signal to the
accompanying electronic interference (the noise). A high SIN ratio is desirable (strong
video or audio signal relative to weak noise).
studio camera
Heavy, high-quality camera and zoom lens that cannot be maneuvered
properly without the aid of a pedestal or some other type of camera mount.
sync
Electronic pulses that synchronize the scanning in the various video origination
sources (studio camera, remote cameras) and various recording, processing, and
reproduction sources (videotape, monitors, television receivers).
sync generator
Part of the camera chain; produces electronic synchronization pulses.
aperture
Iris opening of a lens, usually measured in I-stops.
auto-focus
Automated feature wherein the camera focuses on what it senses to be
your target object.
calibrate
To preset a zoom lens to remain in focus throughout the zoom.
compression
The crowding effect achieved by a narrow-angle (telephoto) lens
wherein object proportions and relative distances seem shallower.
depth of field
The area in which all objects, located at different distances from the
camera, appear in focus. Depth of field depends upon focal length of the lens, its I-stop,
and the distance between the object and the camera.
digital zoom
Simulated zoom by enlarging the image pixels.
digital zoom lens
A lens that can be programmed through a small built-in computer
to repeat zoom positions and their corresponding focus settings.
fast lens
A lens that permits a relatively great amount of light to pass through (lower
minimum I-stop number). Can be used in low-light conditions.
field of view
The portion of a scene visible through a particular lens; its vista.
Expressed in symbols, such as CU for close-up.
focal length
The distance from the optical center of the lens to the front surface of the
camera imaging device at which the image appears in focus with the tens set at infinity.
Focal lengths are measured in millimeters or inches.
focus
A picture is in focus when it appears sharp and clear on-screen (technically, the
point where the light rays refracted by the lens converge).
f-stop
The calibration on the lens indicating the aperture, or iris opening (and
therefore the amount Of light transmitted through the lens). The larger the I-stop number,
the smaller the aperture; the smaller the I-stop number, the larger the aperture.
iris
Adjustable lens-opening that controls the amount of light passing through the
lens, Also called lens diaphragm.
macro position
Position on a zoom lens that allows it to be focused at very close
distances from an object Used for close-ups of small objects.
minimum object distance (MOD)
How close the camera can get to the object and
still focus on it.
narrow-angle lens
Gives a close up view of an event relatively far away from the
camera, Also called long-focal-length or telephoto lens.
normal lens
A lens or zoom lens position with a focal length that will approximate
the spatial relationships of normal vision.
rack focus
To change focus from one object or person closer to the camera to one
farther away or vice versa.
range extender
An optical attachment to the zoom lens that extends its focal length
Also called an extender.
selective focus
Emphasizing an object in a shallow depth of field through focus while
keeping its foreground and background out of focus.
servo zoom control
Zoom control that activates motor-driven mechanisms.
slow lens
A lens that permits a relative1y small amount of
light to pass through (higher minimum f-stop number). Can be used only in well-
lighted areas, wide-angle lens A short-focal-length Jens that provides a broad vista of a
scene.
zoom lens
Variable-focal-length lens. It can gradually change from a wide shot to a
close-up and vice versa in one continuous move.
zoom range
The degree to which the focal length can be changed from a wide shot to
a close-up during a zoom. The zoom range is often stated as a ratio; a 15: 1 zoom ratio
means that the zoom lens can increase its focal length fifteen times.
incandescent
the light produced by the hot tungsten filament of ordinary glass globe or quartz iodine light bulbs (in contrast to fluorescent light)
incident light
light that strikes the object directly from its source. an incident light reading is the measure of light in foot candles (or lux) from the object to the light source. the foot candle (or lux) meter is pointed directly into the light source or toward the camera.
Kelvin degrees
a measure of color temperature; the relative reddishness or bluishness of white light.
lumen
the light intensity power of one candle (light source radiating isotropically, i.e., in all directions)
luminaire
technical term for lighting instrument
luminant
lamp that produces the light; the light source
lux
european standard unit for measuring light intensity. 10.75 lux = 1 fc. usually roughly translated as 10 lux = 1 fc.
neutral density (ND) filter
filter that reduces the incoming light without distorting the color of the scene.
patchboard
a device that connects various inputs with specific outputs. also called patchbay
pattern projector
an ellipsoidal spotlight with a cookie (cucalorus) insert, which projects the cookie's pattern as a cast shadow.
quartz
a high intensity light whose lamp consists of a quarts or a silica housing (instead of the customary glass) and a tungsten-halogen filament. produces a very bright light of stable color temperature (3,200 K)
reflected light
light that is bounced off the illuminated object. a reflected-light reading is done with a light meter held close to the illuminated object.
scoop
a scooplike television floodlight
scrim
a spun glass material that is put in front of a lighting instrument as an additional light diffuser
softlight
television floodlight that produces extremely diffused light. it has a panlike reflector and a light-diffusing material over its opening
spotlight
a lighting instrument that produces directional, relatively undiffused light with a relatively well defined beam edge.
white balance
the adjustments of the color circuits in teh camera to produce a white color in lighting of various color temperatures (relative reddishness or bluishness of white light)
baselight
even, diffused light necessary for the camera to operate optimally. normal baselight levels are 2,000 lux at f/5.6 (150 to 200 foot candles). Also called "base"
broad
a floodlight with a broadside, panlike reflector
clip light
small internal reflector bulb that is clipped to pieces of scenery or furniture with a gator clip
color temperature
relative reddishness or bluishness of light, as measured in Kelvin. the norm for indoor tv lighting is 3200 k, for outdoors, 5600 k
cucalorus
any pattern cut out of thin metal that, when placed in front of an ellipsoidal spotlight (patter, projector) produces a shadow pattern. also called a cookie.
dimmer
a device that controls the intensity of the light by throttling the electric current flowing to the lamp.
ellipsoidal spotlight
spotlight producing a very defined beam, which can be shaped further by metal shutters..
flag
a thin, rectangular sheet of metal, plastic or cloth used to block light from falling on specific aeras
floodlight
lightning instrument that produces diffused light with a relatively undefined beam edge
flueorescent
lamps that generate light by activating a gas filled tube to give off ultraviolet radiation, which lights up the phosphorous coating inside the tubes
follow spot
powerful special effects spotlight used primarily to simulate theater stage effects. it generally follows action, such as dancers, ice skaters or single performers moving in front of a stage curtain
foot-candle (fc)
the unit of measurement of illumination, or the amount of light that falls on an object
fresnel spotlight
one of the most common spotlights named after the inventor of its lens. it has steplike concentric rings
gel
generic term for color filters put in front of spotlights or floodlights to give the light beam a specific hue.
HMI light
stands for hydragyrum medium arc-length iodide. an extremely efficient, high-intensity light that burns at 5600K - the outdoor illumination norm. It needs an additional piece of equipment, a ballast, to operate properly.
knee shot
framing of a person from approximately the knees up
leadroom
the space left in front of a person or object moving toward the edge of the screen
medium shot
object seen from a medium distance. covers any framing between a long shot and a close up.
noseroom
the space left in front of a person looking or pointing toward the edge of the screen.
over-the-shoulder (o/s)
camera looks over a person's shoulder (shoulder and back of head included in shot) at another person.
shot sheet
a list of every shot a particular camera has to get. it is attached to the camera to help the camera operator remember a shot sequence.
z-axis
line representing an extension of the lens from the camera to the horizon-the depth dimension
AGC
automatic gain control. regulates the volume of the audio or video level automatically, without using pots.
bust shot
framing of a person from the upper torso to the top of the head
close-up
object or any part of it seen at close range and framed tightly.
closure
short for psychological closure. mentally filling in spaces of an incomplete picture.
follow focus
controlling the focus of the lens so that the image of an object is continuously kept sharp and clear, regardless of whether the camera and or object move.
headroom
the space left between the top of the head and the upper screen edge