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156 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
outermost covering of a nerve fibre
what is a name for a cluster of nerve cells with similar function?
Names of three meninges
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
convergence or network of nerves
what are the tiny projections on dendrites called, and what is their function?
dendritic spinules – to increase surface area, providing more contact points for other neurons.
name three kinds of neuroglia
astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurolemmocytes (schwann cells/microglia).
creates myelin coating around axons in PNS
schwann cell
creates myelin coating around axons in CNS
propagate a nerve impulse along a myelinated axon
neurofibril nodes/nodes of ranvier?
what is another name for an interneuron?
association neuron.
what are the three main divisions of the brain, based on their embronic positions, and which structures of the brain make them up?
forebrain (prosencephalon): cerebrum (telencephalon) and diencephalon, midbrain (mesencephalon), and hindbrain (rhombencephalon-cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata.)
what are the names of the convolutions on the external surface of the cerebrum?
what are the depressions between the gyri called?
regulate gross unconscious movements (swinging arms while walking)
basal ganglia
what is another name for the interbrain
what are the walls of the diencephalon made of?
thalami - large masses of gray matter
what is the name for the pair of bundles of fibres – motor fibres that convey impulses from cerebral cortex to the pons and spinal cord, and sensory fibres that pass from spinal cord to thalamus. main avenue for connections between spinal cord and cerebrum.
cerebral peduncles
what are the four round eminences of the dorsal portion of the midbrain called, and what do they do?
corpora quadrigemina – reflex centres form movements of eyeball and head in response to visual and auditory stimuli.
what connects the two halves of the brain?
corpus callosum (large tract of white matter)
what are the specialized paired masses of grey matter located deep within the white matter
basal nuclei
which is the most prominent of the basal nuclei?
corpus striatum
which is the uppermost basal nuclei?
caudate nucleus
what is the name of the two basal nuclei masses beneath the thick band of white matter under the caudate nucleus?
the lentiform nucleus, which is made up of the putamen and the globus pallidus.
what controls language comprehension?
wernickes area
what is the fibre tract that connects wernickes area to the motor speech area?
arcuate fasciculus
where is cerebrospinal fluid produced?
choroid plexus – the inside lining of the roof over the third ventricle.
where is the pituitary gland located?
sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
what is the proper name for the anterior pituitary?
what is the proper name for the posterior pituitary
what is the name of the gray “H” shaped porion in the centre of the spinal cord?
Gray commissure.
What is the central canal of the spinal cord continuous with?
fourth ventricle of the medulla
what are the three areas of white matter on each side of the spinal cord called?
anterior column (funinculus), lateral column, and posterior column.
What is the cavity called that is between the dural sheath and the vertebrae
epidural space (highly vascular and filled with loose fibrous and adipose connective tissues to form pad around spinal cord.)
What separates the arachnoid mater from the pia mater?
the subarachnoid space, filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
what attaches the spinal cord to the dura mater?
the ligamentum denticulatum, which is partially formed by the pia mater.
What connects the ventricles?
lateral ventricles connected by interventricular foramen to third ventricule (between thalami), mesencephalic aqueduct connects third to fourth ventricles. Fourth ventricle connects to two lateral and one median apertures, which return CSF to arachnoid villi.
Describe the flow of CSF
secreted by choroid plexuses in ventricular walls, circulates through ventricles and central canal, enters the subarachnoid space, is reabsorbed into blood of dural sinuses through arachnoid villi. (Diag:VDG, p383.)
what is hydrocephalus?
blockage of free communication in ventricular system or subarachnoid space. CSF accumulates in ventricles proximal to blockage, causing pressure increase within ventricular system.
What is the vertebral artery a branch of?
the subclavian artery
Where does the vertebral artery pass?
through the transverse foramina of the upper six cervical vertebrae
where does the vertebral artery enter the skull?
foramen magnum (of the occipital bone)
What do the vertebral and carotid arteries form when they converge?
basilar artery.
What is the name for the anastomoses formed by the two internal carotid arteries, and the basilar artery, and what is its purpose?
Circle of willis. Branches provide blood to various areas of the brain. Provides an alternate pathway for blood to reach the brain in the event that there is blockage of one of the arteries.
Name the four cranial dura mater septa and what they partition.
falx cerebri. partitions left and right cerebral hemispheres (is in the longitudinal fissure.) Tentorium cerebelli. separates occipital and teporal lobes from the cerebellum. falx cerebelli partitions the left and right cerebellar hemispheres. diaphragma sellae forms the roof of the sella turcica.
What is the little hole in the sphenoid bone that the pituitary fits into
sella turcica
Which rami makes up the major part of the spinal nerve?
ventral rami
Important nerve of cervical plexus and what it innervates
phrenic nerve, supplies motor fibres of diaphragm
What is pressure on the spinal roots in the lumbar region. Pain radiates down gluteal region and leg. Usually caused by herniated intervertebral disc.
what is another name for the common peroneal nerve?
lateral popliteal nerve
Which nerve and branches supplies the entire leg?
what is another name for a golgi tendon organ?
neurotendinous receptor
what is another name for an efferent neuron?
alpha motor neuron
What is the name given to the specialized muscle fibres within a muscle spindle?
intrafusal fibres (normal muscle fibres are called extrafusal)
The principal connection between the cerebral hemispheres is
The corpus collosum is composed of commissural fibres that connect the two cerebral hemispheres.
The corpus collosum is composed of________ fibres
name for area of mesencephalon concerned with motor coordination and posture maintenance
red nucleus
name for area of mesencephalon concerned with visual and hearing reflexes
corpora quadrigemina
name for area of mesencephalon though to inhibit forced involuntary movements.
substantia nigra
what is the name of the sheet of dense fibrous connective tissue that the diaphragm connects to?
central tendon.
How is the surface area of the nasal cavity increased?
Three plate-like bones called conchae
What are nasal hairs called?
What are the three regions of the phayrnx
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx.
what is the middle portion of the pharynx, directly posterior to the oral cavity, below the uvula. passageway for air and food?
what is at the level of the hyoid bone above the openings of the larynx and esophagus that functions as a respiratory and digestive passageway?
what does the thyroid cartilage cover?
only the anterior and lateral margins of the larynx
what is the name of the cartilage immediately inferior to the thyroid cartilage. describe it.
cricoid cartilage. forms a complete ring. narrow diameter than than pharynx or larynx – this is what is obstructed when the airpassage is blocked.
What are the thin membranes over the lungs called?
What is the top of the pleura called where the lung enters?
what are the three layers of the heart wall?
endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium.
what is the endocardium composed of?
endothelium and fibrous tissue
what does the endocardium do?
lines all of the compartments and valves of the heart. Continous with innermost layer of arteries and veins. the CONDUCTING SYSTEM is within the endocardium.
how are the muscle fibres of the heart wall arranged?
spirals. they originate and insert on a dense ring of fibrous tissue separating the atria and ventricles.
what are the extensions of muscle fibres which attach to atrioventricular valves?
papillary muscles, which prevent the av valves from being pushed out when the ventricles contract.
what are the cords called which attach the papillary muscles to the av valves?
chordae tendinae
what is the outer layer of the heart called?
what is another name for the epicardium?
visceral pericardium.
what is the space called between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium?
the pericardial cavity.
what is the depression in the walls of the atria called?
fossa ovalis
what is the fossa ovalis?
remnant of opening present during fetal development.
what are the horizontal ridges of muscles around the sac-like appendage of the right atrium?
pectinate muscles.
what are the rough irregular muscular ridges within the right ventricle called?
trabeculae carneae.
what is special about one of the trabeculae carnae?
more developed than others and contains a part of the electrical conducting system of the heart.
what are the valves of the heart made of?
dense fibrous connective tissue with an endocardial covering on both inner and outer surfaces.
describe the structure of the atrioventricular valves
right has three cusps, left has three. both are continuous with the dense fibrous tissue between the atria and ventricles. they hang free in the direction of blood flow but are attached at their free edges by chordae tendinae to papillary mucles which squeeze them closed as the ventricles are filling with blood and then contracting.
what two arteries does the left coronary artery branch into?
circumflex and *anterior* descending interventricular artery
What do the circumflex and right coronary arteries form
an anastomosis (network)
what is artherosclerosis?
deposition of lipid material on the inner lining of the arterial wall, which causes occlusion of the coronary arteries.
What do the conducting fibres bundle into and where?
distal to the AV node, they’re bundled into the atroventricular bundle or “Bundle of His”.
what is continuous with myocardial fibres of the ventricles.
purkinje fibres
name for swallowing
transports bolus to stomach via peristalsis. has lower________ sphincter restricts backflow of food.
esophagus, esophageal
supports the liver to diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall. is made of serous membrane reinforced by connective tissue.
falciform ligament
protective fatty serous membrane attached to stomach and transverse colon. an apron-like structure over the small intestine. stores fat, cushions visceral organs, supports lymph nodes and protects against infection spread.
greater omentum
from the lesser curvature of the stomach and upper duodenum to the inferior surface of the liver.
lesser omentum
what are the four layers that the GI tract is composed of?
four tunics: mucosa, submucosa, tunica muscularis, serosa.
what is the peritoneal cavity?
space between the parietal and visceral peritonea.
what are the three kinds of small elevations on the surface of the tongue?
papillae: filiform (most numerous, touch-sensitive,tapered tips) fungiform (larger, rounded, with taste buds, scattered in among filiform), vallate papillae – arranged in a V at back of tongue.
what are the three major salivary glands?
parotid(largest), submandibular, and sublingual.
describe the parotid gland
u shaped, partly surrounds mandiblular ramus, inferior to external acoustic meatus. Secretes mainly water and amylase.
what are the names of the folds within the stomach?
what are the four regions of the stomach?
cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus
describe the cardia
narrow upper region immediately below esophagus
what are the names of the two borders of the stomach?
medial concave border=lesser curvature. lateral convex border = greater curvature
what is a common stomach irritation?
gastritis. inflammation of the mucosal lining
name the order of the parts of the small intestine:
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
how and where is the jejunum and ileum supported?
suspended by mesentery, in the centre of the abdominal cavity
what is contained within the mesentery of the abdomen?
blood vessels, including the abdominal aorta, which supplies oxygenated blood to the GI tract.
how does the small intestine complete digestion?
contains enzymes that split proteins into amino acids, carbohydrates into simple sugars, fats into fatty acids and glyceral, which are all absorbed.
where is the ileocecal junction
lower right abdominal cavity, at junction of ileum and cecum.
what s the appendix
narrow wormlike vestigial organ filled with lymphocytes.
what are the large bands of muscle on the large intestine called?
taeniae coli
what is the cecum
distended thinwalled sac separated from ileum by ileocecal valve
what are the three types of movement of the small intestine?
rhythmic segmentations (local contractions of the circular muscular layer which churn chyme with digestive juices, facilitate absorption), pendular movements (in longitudinal muscle layer – constrictive back and forth waves along a segment which move and mix the chyme, and peristalsis, which are wavelike contractions along the length of the intestine.
what is the turn called in the upper right large intestine?
hepatic flexure
what is the turn called in the upper left large intestine?
splenic flexure
what are the main types of movement in the large intestine?
peristalsis, haustral churning, mass movement
What is the liver composed of?
composed of liver cells called hepatocytes, which form hepatic plates one to two cells thickness which surround the liver sinusoids, highly permeable spaces within the liver, lined with kupffer cells that increase their permeability to allow the liver cells to be in direct contact with the large volume of venous blood that flows through the liver sinusoids and blood vessels.
what supports the liver?
two main ligaments: the ligamentum teres and falciform ligament. The falciform ligament also separates the right and left lobes.
what is the purpose of the structural arrangement of the hepatic plates and the sinusoids
hepatic plates carrying bile, and the sinusoids carrying blood ensure that blood and bile do not mix within the liver
what are the endocrine functions of the pancreas?
performed by cell clusters called the islets of Langerhans or pancreatic islets, which secrete insulin and glucagon into the blood to maintain correct blood sugar levels
________ are longitudinal muscle bands of the colon
taeniae coli
the inner surface of the stomach is thrown into folds called
what is the ball of capillaries inside each nephron called?
what is the hilus
a concave medial area of the kidneys where the renal artery, ureter and renal vein connect.
what surrounds each kidney?
three layered fatty fibrous pouch consisting of a capsule of fibrous tissue for protection, an adipose layer, and a layer of dense irregular connective tissue – the renal fascia
what is the triangular area in the bladder called?
where is the urethral ofirice located?
what are the components of the male reproductive system?
testes, ducts (epidiymis, vas deferens), accessory glands(prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands), and reproductive cells – spermatozoa.
what occurs when a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal
inguinal hernia
what is the main male hormone
where do sperm go from the epididymis?
to the vas deferens (or ductus deferens)
what are the names of the three longitudinal tubes?
corpora cavernosa (2), and corpus spongiosum
How does an erection subside (word for it?)
(detumescense)arteries constrict, vasoconstriction decreases, inflow of blood decreases pressure, and blood drains away from the penis through the venous system.
interstitial cells
secrete male hormones
sperm storage and maturation
store sperm, convey sperm to ejaculatory ducts
ductus deferens
secrete fluid that lubricates the urethra and end of the penis
bulbourethral glands
name and describe the three regions of the uterus
fundus – dome shaped superior area near the fallopian (uterine) tubes, body – the bulky main portion, and the cervix – most inferior portion.
How many layers does the wall of the uterus have, and what are they?
THREE: 1. perimetrium / serosa: thin covering continuous with peritoneum 2. myometrium: intermediate layer of thick muscle 3. endometrium: lining of the uterus – glandular vascular mucous membrane that responds to hormones – is the lush implantation site – superficial layer is shed during the monthly menstrual cycle.
retrouterine pouch in the peritoneum – lowest point in the pelvis of a woman, where fluid can gather – can cause infection here.
alternative term for the external genitalia of the female
enclose and protect labia minora
labia majora - margins of pudendal cleft
labia minora
margins of vaginal vestibule – protect vaginal and urethral openings
glans of the clitoris – richly supplied with sensory nerve endings associated with pleasure during sexual stimulation
cleft between labia majora within which labia minor and clitoris are located
pudendal cleft
cleft between labia minora within which vaginal and urethral openings are located
vaginal vestibule
secrete fluid which moistens and lubricates vaginal vestibule and vaginal opening during sexual arousal and coitus
vestibular glands
the ligament that passes through the inguinal canal in the female is the _____ ligament
round ligament
the extrusion of the oocyte from the ovary is known as _____
__________muscle is imbedded within the wall of the scrotum. Along with the __________ muscle, it regulates the position of the testes within the scrotum through involuntary contraction in response to cold temperatures.
the dartos, cremasteric
what are the three layers of the ureters called?
inner mucosa(transitional epithelium with mucous cells), intermediate muscularis (smooth muscle), and outer adventitia (loose connective tissue)
what permits distension of the urinary bladder?
rugae folds in the mucosa.
which ligament hold the urinary bladder, connecting it to the umbilicle are
median umbilical ligament
what are dura mater septa and what is the function?
four locations where the meningeal layer of the dura mater forms partitions between major brain surface structures. They partition brain surface structures and anchor the brain to the inside of the cranial case.
what are the atrial sac-like appendages called?
double fold of parietal peritoneium that supports the GI tract while allowing freedom of peristaltic movement.