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15 Cards in this Set

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Problem
A situation in which there is no apparent or immediate routine way of reaching a goal.
The structure of a problem (3 pars)
1. Goal state --> this is where you want to be...this is the solution to the problem
2. Initial state --> This is where you are now as you face the problem.
3. Set of operations --> you can apply to get from the initial state to the goal state.
Well-Defined Problems
Problems in which the initial state and the goal state are clearly defined and the possible moves are known (ex: chess)
Ill-defined Problems
The initial and goal states are not clear..steps aren't clear how to get to goal state
Problem Space Theory
1. Problem solving is a search within a problem space
2. A problem space is a set of possible choices that face a problem solver @ each step in moving from initial state to goal state
Experts (Representation)
Experts organise their knowledge in terms of deeper abstract principles
Experts (encoding)
Experts "chunk" info
Experts are better at meaningful info but not random info
Experts (Strategy)
Experts tend to employ a forward search: search from initial state to goal state.
Novices tend to employ a backward search from goal state to initial state.
ANALOGICAL reasoning
A process of comparison, using knowlege of relatively known domain and applying it to another domain.
INDUCTIVE reasoning
Any thought process that uses our knowlege of specific known instances to draw an inference about unknown instances.
Confirmation Bias
The predisposition to weigh info in ways consistent with pre-existing beliefs.
Deductive Reasoning
If the premises are true, then the conclusion cannot be false
Valid Conclusion
A conclusion that follows from the given premises by the laws of deductive logic.
Form Errors
Result from errors in the format of the premise-conclusion relationship
Content Errors
Result when the content of the syllogism is overly influential.