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### 15 Cards in this Set

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 Problem A situation in which there is no apparent or immediate routine way of reaching a goal. The structure of a problem (3 pars) 1. Goal state --> this is where you want to be...this is the solution to the problem 2. Initial state --> This is where you are now as you face the problem. 3. Set of operations --> you can apply to get from the initial state to the goal state. Well-Defined Problems Problems in which the initial state and the goal state are clearly defined and the possible moves are known (ex: chess) Ill-defined Problems The initial and goal states are not clear..steps aren't clear how to get to goal state Problem Space Theory 1. Problem solving is a search within a problem space 2. A problem space is a set of possible choices that face a problem solver @ each step in moving from initial state to goal state Experts (Representation) Experts organise their knowledge in terms of deeper abstract principles Experts (encoding) Experts "chunk" info Experts are better at meaningful info but not random info Experts (Strategy) Experts tend to employ a forward search: search from initial state to goal state. Novices tend to employ a backward search from goal state to initial state. ANALOGICAL reasoning A process of comparison, using knowlege of relatively known domain and applying it to another domain. INDUCTIVE reasoning Any thought process that uses our knowlege of specific known instances to draw an inference about unknown instances. Confirmation Bias The predisposition to weigh info in ways consistent with pre-existing beliefs. Deductive Reasoning If the premises are true, then the conclusion cannot be false Valid Conclusion A conclusion that follows from the given premises by the laws of deductive logic. Form Errors Result from errors in the format of the premise-conclusion relationship Content Errors Result when the content of the syllogism is overly influential.