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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
John Howard
Coined “a place to do penance” from the Penitentiary
Three developments led to the American prison system
Religious doctrine, American revolution, classicalism
What did the Quakers believe concerning prison?
imprisonment (classicalism)
What did the Calvinists believe concerning prison?
Redemption (positivism)
Describe Walnut Street prison
Inmates confined to cells, worked in courtyard during the day
First US prison
Describe the Pennsylvania system
isolated each prisoner for the entire period of confinement, based on Calvinist model of hard labor, isolation and religious study
Thomas Eddy
Prison reformer, prisons were copied after his suggestions
Describe the Auburn system
Cell block style, lockstep shuffle, complete silence, divided inmates into three classes, forerunner to modern prisons
Convict Labor exploits (3)
Contract, Lease, State-use
Big house system
Shaped like Auburn but attitude was complete opposite: talking, recreation, decorate cells, favoritism among guards
Earl Warren
Reorganized the prison system, applied behavioral sciences to “correct” behavior
Boasted “most secure, escape proof prison”- based on rehabilitation, inmate rioted, rehabilitation was blamed
“Word of honor”
Norfolk Island
Australia, "one of the most remarkable experiments in the history of penology..."
former Naval Officer his system brought tranquility to the colony
"Ticket of Leave"
released and supervised by police
Elmira Reformatory
based on "positivism" designed to instill habits of order, discipline, and self control and mold obedient citizen-workers
Medical Model
Based on methods of science, a scientific "war on crime"
Medical model is based on what two assumptions?
criminals are sick and can benefit from treatment, behavioral sciences can provide treatment
David Fogle
presented to "Justice Model", wanted the elimination of boards
Presumptive sentencing
generally imposed on first time offenders
eliminating release discretion
A parole agency can provide three basic services:
Institutional, Field, Executive Clemency
There are two basic models for administrating parole:
Independent model, Consolidated model
Independent model
responsible for release/revocation, supervision of released
Consolidated model
responsible for release/revocation, BUT supervision of released is under the direction of the commissioner of corrections
Conditional release
sometimes called "mandatory release" or good time
Who appoints the parole board?
The governor
Two types of parole violation:
Technical, New offense
Preliminary hearing
Purpose is to determine probable cause, “hearsay is permissible in preliminary hearings”
Revocation hearing
Similar to Preliminary hearing but more comprehensive, right to counsel - determine if violation is serious enough to revoke parole
Street time
Time spent on parole under supervision
Executive Clemency, three types:
Reprieve, commutation, pardon
temporary suspension
modification of the sentence to the benefit of the offender
Sovereign power of state, a privilege
Parole Violations
Grace Theory, Contract Theory, Custody Theory