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167 Cards in this Set

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What are the eligibility requirements for a private pilot (airplane) certificate? (14 CFR 61.103)
a. 17 years of age
b. Read, speak, write, understand english.
c. Hold at least 3rd class medical cerfificate.
d. Received required ground and flight training endorsements.
e. Meet the applicable aeronatical experience requirements.
f. Passed the required knowledge and practical tests.
What privileges and limitations apply to a private pilot? (14 CFR 61.113)
No person who holds a private pilot certificate may act as a pilot-in-command of an airctaft that is carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire.
a. may act as PIC in connection with business if it is incidental
b. may not pay less that pro rata share of expenses with passengers
c. my act as PIC of A/C used in passenger-carrying for charitable organizations
d. may be reimbursed for search and locations operations
c. may demonstrate A/C in flight to buyer if pilot is a salesman and has @ least 200 hours logged time
f. may act as PIC of A/C towing glider if they meet requirements of 61.69 (100 hrs pic in sm cat+class,logbook endorsement and proper training,currency requirments)
To act as PIC, or required flight crewmember, what must a pilot have in their possesion or ready available in the A/C?
a. valid pilot certificate
b. photo identification
c. current medical certificate
What is the definition of a high-performance airplane, and requirement to act as PIC of one?
More than 200HP
a. received and logged ground and flight training and found proficient
b. received endorsement in logbook from auth instructor
Other than High-perf and complex, what other types of A/C require specific training and endorsements?
High Altitude Airplane -
pressurized a/c that has a service ceiling above 25000 feet msl.
Tailwheel Airplane
What is a complex airplane, and what are the req to act as PIC?
A complex airplane has retractable gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch propeller. You must have:
a. received and logged ground and flight training and found proficient
b. received endorsement in logbook
With respect to certification, privelges, and limitations of airmen; define Category, Class, and Type.
Category - broad classifiction of aircraft (airplane, rotorcraft, glider)
Class - a classification of aircraft within a category having similar operating characteristics (single-engine land, multi-engine land)
Type - a specific make and basic model of aircraft including modifications that do not change its hadling or flight characteristics (DC-9, B-737, Cessna 152).
Requirements to remain current as a private pilot.
a. flight review and logbook endorsement every 24 months by authorized instructor.
b. to carry passengers - must have made in last 90 days:
1. three takeoffs and landings as sole manipulator of the controls of same category class and type (if type rating is req)
2. tailwheel must be to full stop
3. night ops (1 hr after sunset to 1 hour before sunrise) must be to full stop in same cat, class and type (if type is req).
*may be accomplished with approved flight sim
What medical certificate is required for private pilot and how long is it valid?
3rd Class Medical
a. 36 months under 40
b. 24 months over 40
If a pilot changes his permanent mailing address and fails to notify the FAA, how long may the pilot continue to excercise the privileges of his pilot certificate.
30 days after the date of the move.
What documents are required on board an aircraft prior to flight? (14 CFR 91.203, 91.9)
A - Airworthiness Certificate
R - Registration Certificate
O - Owner's manual/op limit
W - Weight and balance data
How can a pilot determine if his A/C is equipped with a Mode C transponder?
Current weight and balance equipment list for A/C.
When will an aircraft registration certificate expire?
a. A/C is registered in foreign country.
b. Registration of A/C is canceled at the written request of the holder of the certificate.
c. A/C is totally destroyed
d. Ownership transferred
e. Holder loses US citizenship
f. Thirty days since death of certificate holder.
Who is responsible for ensuring A/C is maintained in an airworthy condition? (14 CFR 91.403)
Owner or operator of an A/C is primarily responsible.
After A/C inspections have been made and defects have been repaired, who is responsible for determining that the A/C is in an airworthy condition? (14 CFR 91.7)
The PIC. PIC shall discontinue any flight when unairworthy mechanical, elecrical, or structural conditions occur.
What records or documents should be checked to determine that the owner or operator of an A/C has complied with all required inspections and airworthiness directives? (14 CFR 91.405)
The maintenance records (A/C and engine logbooks). Owner or operator shall ensure maintenance personnel make appropriate entries in the A/C maintenance records indicating the A/C has been approved for return to service.
What regs apply concerning the operation of an aircraft that has alterations or repairs which may have substantially affected its operation in flight? (14 CFR 91.407)
No person may op or carry passengers in any A/C that has undergone maintenance, preventative maint, rebuilding, or alteration that may have appreciably changed its flight characteristics or affected its operaion in flight until an appropriately rated pilot with at least private pilot cert:
a. flies the A/C
b. makes op check of maint
c. logs the flight in records
What is an Airworthiness Certificate and how long does it remain valid? (FAA-H-8083-25)
It is issued by the FAA only after the A/C has been inspected and found to meet the requirments of 14 CFR, and is in cond for safe op. Aircraft must meet requirements of the original type cert. It must be displayed in A/C so that it is legible to pass or crew whenever A/C is operated. Remains in effect as long as A/C receives the required maintenance and is properly registered in U.S.
Can a pilot conduct a flight operations in an A/C with inop equip? (AC 91-67, 14 CFR 91.213)
Yes, 14 CFR part 91 allows for operation of A/C with certain inoperative instruments and equip not essential for safe flight:
a. Operation with Minimum Equipment List (MEL)
b. Operation of A/C without MEL.
What are Minimum Equipment Lists? (AC 91-67)
The MEL is a precise listing of instruments, equip and procedures that allows and A/C to be operated under specific conditions with inop equipment. The MEL is the specific inop equipment document for a particular make and model A/C by serial and reg numbers. FAA-approved MEL includes only those items of equip that FAA deems my be inop and still maintain acceptable level of safety w/ appropriate conditions and limitations.
What limitations apply to A/C operations conducted using the deferral provision of 14 CFR 91.213(d)?
When inop equip is found during preflight or prior to departure, the decision should be to cancel the flight, obtain maintenance prior to flight, or to defer the item or equipment. Maintenance deferrals are not used for inflight discrepancies. Manufacturers POH procedures are to be used in those situations.
What limitations apply to aircraft operations being coducted using MELs? (FAA-H-8083-25)
For small, non-turbine-powered airplane operated under part 91 allows for the deferral of inop items or equipment. FAA considers an approved MEL to be a supplemental type certificate (STC) issued to an A/C by serial number and reg number. Once an operator requests an MEL, and a Letter of Authorization (LOA) is issued by the FAA, then the MEL becomes mandatory for that A/C. All maintenance deferrals must be done in accordance with the MEL and the operator-generated procedures document.
What are the procedures to follow when using 14 CFR 91.213(d) for deferral of inop equipment?
Pilot determines whether the inop equip is required by type design, the regs, or ADs. If the inop item is not required, and the A/C can be safely op w/o it, the deferral may be made. Then the pilot removes or deactivates the inoperative item, and places an INOPERATIVE placard near the switch, control, or indicator. If deactivation or remival involves maintenance, it must be done by certificated personnel.
What are the required maintenance inspections for aircraft? (14 CFR 91.409)
a. Annual Inspection - within the preceding 12 calendar months
b. 100-hour - if carrying any person for hire or flight instruction.
If an A/C has been on a scheduled of inspection every 100 hours, under what condition may it continue to operate beyond the 100 hours w/o a new inspection? (14 CFR 91.409)
The 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 hours while en route to a place where the inspection can be done. This time must be included in computing the next 100 hours of time in service.
What is the difference between and Annual inspection and a 100-hour inspection? (14 CFR part 43)
Content is the same. Only an A&P mechanic with an Inspecion Authorization can perform an annual, 100 hour may be performed by any A&P mechanic.
Be capable of locating the required maintenance and equipment inspections for your aircraft in the A/C and engine logbooks. What should these include? (14 CFR 91.207, 91.215, 91.405, and 91.413)
a. Annual inspection/100 hour
b. ELT inspection (12 mo)
c. ELT battery exp date
d. Transponder cert (24 mo)
e. Compliance with ADs
**IFR-pitot-static pressure sys, altimeter, and auto pressure altitude reporting sys must also have been tested and ispected in the previous 24 months.
What are some of the responsiblilities an A/C owner has pertaining to A/C docs, maint, and inspections of their A/C? (FAA-H-8083-25)
a. Airworthiness Cert and A/C registration in the A/C
b. Maintain A/C in airworthy condition including compliance w/ all ADs
c. Ensure maintenance is properly recorded
d. Keep abreasy of curr regs concerning op of A/C
e. Notify FAA Civil Aviation Registry immediately of any change of address, or of the sale or export of the A/C, or the loss of citizenship
f. Have a curr FCC radio station lic if equipped w/ radios, including ELT, if operated outside the U.S.
Define "preventative maintenance". (FAA-H-8083-25)
Simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations. Certificated pilots, excluding student, sport, and recreational pilots, may perform preventative maint on any A/C that is owned or operated by them, not used in air carrier service. (Oil changes, wheel bearing lubrication, hydraulic fluid - brakes, landing gear system - refills.
What are "Special Flight Permits", and when are they necessary? (14 CFR 91.213, 14 CFR 21.197)
May be issued for A/C that may not currently meet applicable airworthy req but is capable of safe flight.
a. Flying an A/C to a base where repairs, alterations, or maint is to be perf, or to a point of storage.
b. Delivering or exporting an A/C.
c. Production flight testing
d. Evacuating A/C from impending danger
e. Conducting customer demonstration flights in new-production A/C that have satisfactorily completed prod flight tests.
How are "Special Flight Permits" obtained? (FAA-H-8023-25)
Assistance and necessary forms may be obtained from the local FSDO or Designated Airworthiness Representative (DAR).
What are "Airworthiness Directives" - (ADs)? (FAA-H-8083-25)
The medium the FAA uses to notify A/C owners and other potentially interested persons of unsafe conditions that may exist because of design defects, maint, or other causes, and to specifythe conditions under which the product may continue to operate. ADs are regulatory in nature, and compliance is mandatory. A/C owner or operator must comply with all pertinent ADs.
State the general characteristics in regard to the flow of air around high and low pressure systems in the Northern Hemisphere.
Low Pressure--inward, upward, and counterclockwise

High Pressure--outward,downward, and clockwise
What is a "trough"?
an elongated area of relatively low atmospheric pressure. At the surface when air converges into a low, it cannot go outward against the pressure gradient, nor can it go downward into the ground; it must go upward. Therefore, a low or trough is an area of rising air. Rising air is conductive to cloudiness and precipitation; hence the general association of low pressure and bad weather.
What is a "ridge"?
elongated are of relatively high atmospheric pressure. Air moving out of a high or ridge depletes the quantity of air; therefore, these are areas of descending air. Decending air favors dissipation of cloudiness; hence the association of high pressure and good weather.
What are the standard temperature and pressure values for sea level?
15°C and 29.92" Hg
What are "isobars"?
a line on a weather chart which connects areas of equal or constant barometric pressure
If the isobars are relatively close together on a surface weather chart or a constant pressure chart, what information will this provide?
Spacing of isobars on charts defines how steep or shallow a pressure gradient is. When isobars are spaced very close together, a steep pressure gradient exists which indicates higher wind speeds. A shallow pressure gradient usually means wind speeds will be less.
What causes the winds aloft to flow parallel to the isobars?
The Coriolis Force
Why do surface winds generally flow across the isobars at and angle?
Surface Friction
At what rate does atmospheric pressure decrease with an increase in altitude?
1" Hg per 1000 feet
Define "dew point".
The temperature to which a parcel of air must be cooled to attain the state of saturation.
When temperature and dew point are close together (within 5º), what type of weather is likely?
Visible moisture in the form of clouds, dew, or fog. Also, these are ideal conditions for carburetor icing.
What factor primarily determines the type and vertical extent of clouds?
The stability of the atmosphere.
How do you determine the stability of the atmosphere?
By observing the actual lapse rate and comparing it to the standard lapse rate of 3.5ºF per 1000 feet. The "K" index of a stability chart is the primary means of determining stability. In general, stable air cools at a rate less than the standard lapse rate with altitude, and unstable air cools at a rate that is greater than the standard lapse rate.
List the effects of stable air on clouds, turbulence, precipitation and visibility.
Clouds..........Stratiform
Turbulence......Smooth
Precipitation...Steady
Visibility......Fair to Poor
List the effects of unstable air on clouds, turbulence, precipitation and visibility.
Clouds..........Cumuliform
Turbulence......Rough
Precipitation...Showery
Visibility......Good
At what altitude above the surface would the pilot expect the bases of cumuliform clouds if the surface temperature is 82º and the dew point is 62º?
Temperature - Dew Point/4 x 1000 = base of clouds

82-62=20 /4=5x1000=5000ft AGL
What will the freezing level be if the field elevation is 1000 ft and the temp @ the surface is 15ºC?
Subtract 2ºC per 1000 ft (avg lapse rate) from 15ºC. 15/2 = 7500 + 1000 field elevation = 8500 msl freezing level.
What conditions are necessary for structural icing to occur?
Visible moisture and below freezing temperatures at the point moisture strikes the aircraft.
What are the two main types of icing?
Structural and induction.
Name Four types of structural ice.
Clear ice--forms when large drops strike the aircraft surface and slowly freeze.

Rime ice--small drops strike the aircraft and freeze rapidly.

Mixed ice--combination of above; supercooled water drops varying in size.

Frost--ice crystal deposits formed by sublimation when temperature and dew point are below freezing.
What action is recommended if you inadvertantly encounter icing conditions?
Change course and or altitude; usually, climb to a higher altitude if possible.
Is frost considered to be hazardous to flight?
Yes, frost does not change the basic aerodynamic shape of the wing, the roughness of its surface spoils the smooth flow of air, causing a slowing of airflow. This slowing of the air causes early airflow separation, resulting in a loss of lift. Even a small amount of frost may prevent an aircraft from becoming airborne at normal takeoff speed. Also, once airborne, an aircraft could have insufficient margin of airspeed above stall so that moderate gusts or turning flight could produce incipient or complete stalling.
What factors must be present for a thunderstorm to form?
A source of lift (heating, fast-moving front)

Unstable air (nonstandard lapse rate)

High moisture content (temp/dew point close)
What are the three stages of a thunderstorm?
Cumulus stage--Updrafts cause raindrops to increase in size.

Mature stage--Rain at earth's surface; it falls through or immediately beside the updrafts; lightning; perhaps roll clouds.

Dissipating stage--Downdrafts and rain begin to dissipate.
What is a "temperature inversion"?
An increase in temperature with height--a reversal of the normal decrease with height. An inversion aloft permits warm rain to fall through cold air below. Temperature in the cold aer can be critical to icing. A gound-based inversion favors poor visibility by trapping fog, smoke, and other restrictions into low levels of the atmosphere. The air is stable, with little or no turbulance.
Name several ways that fog may form.
Cool air to the dew point.

Add moisture to the air.
Name several types of fog.
Radiation fog

Advection fog

Upslope fog

Precipitation-induced fog
What causes radiation fog to form?
The transport of warm humid air over a cold surface. A pilot can expect advection fog to form primarily along costal areas during winter. Unlike radiation fog, it may occur with winds, cloudy skies, over a wide geographic area, and at any time of the day or night.
What is upslop fog?
A result of moist, stable air being cooled adiabatically as it moves up sloping terrain. Once the upslope wind ceases, the fog dissipates. Upslope fog is often quite dense and extends to high altitudes.
Define "wind shear," and state the areas in which it is likely to occur.
The rate of change of wind velocity (direction or speed) per unit distance; conventionally expressed as vertical or horizontal wind shear. It may occur at any level in the atmosphere but three areas of special concern"
A. Wind shear with low-level temperature inversion.
B. Wind shear in a frontal zone or thunderstorm.
C. Clear air turbulence (CAT) at high levels associated with a jet stream or strong circulation.
Why is wind shear an operational concern to pilots?
Because unexpected changes in wind speed and direction can be potentially hazardous to aircraft operations at low altitudes on approach to and departing from airports.
What is the primary means of obtaining a weather briefing?
Individual briefing from and FSS. These are tailored to your specific flight by calling 1-800-WX BRIEF.
What are some examples of other sources of weather information?
Telephone Information Briefing Service (TIBS)
Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWEB)
Telephone Access to TWEB (TEL-TWEB)
Weather and aeronautical information from numerous private industry sources
Direct User Access System (DUATS)
Where can you finde a listing of FSS and weather information numbers?
Airport/Facility Directory (AFD) under the "FAA and NWS Telephone Numbers" section. Also in US Gov section of the local telephone directory.
What types of weather briefings are avalable from an FSS briefer?
Standard Briefing
Abbreviated Briefing
Outlook Briefing
Inflight Briefing
Describe Standard Briefing
Request when you are planning a flight and you have not received a previous briefing or have not received preliminary information through mass dissemination media (TIBS, TWEB, etc).
Describe Abbreviated Briefing
Request when you need information to supplement mass disseminated data, update a previous briefing, or when you need only one or two items.
Describe Outlook Briefing
Request when your proposed time of departure is six or more hours from the time of the briefing; for planning purposes only.
Describe Inflight Briefing
Request when needed to update a preflight briefing.
What pertinent information should a weather briefing include?
Adverse Conditions
VFR Flight Not Recommended
Synopsis
Current Conditions
Enroute Forecast
Destination Forecast
Winds Aloft
Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs)
ATC Delay
ON REQUEST--MTRs, MOAs, printed NOTAMs, Density altitude info, info on air traffic services/rules, customs/immigration procedures, ADIZ rules, search and rescue, LORAN, NOTAM, GPS RAIM availability, and other assistance as required.
What is EFAS?
En Route Flight Advisory Servce is a service specifically designed to provide enroute aircraft w/ timely and meaningful weather advisories pertinent to the type of flight intended, route of flight, and altitude. Also serves as central collection adn distribution point for PIREPS. Provides comm capabilities for aircraft flying at 5000 ft AGL to 17500 ft MSL on common frequency of 122.0 MHz. Also known as "Flight Watch".
What is HIWAS?
Hazardous In-flight Weather Advisory Service is a continuous broadcast of in-flight weather advisories including summarized Aviation Weather Warnings, SIGMETs, Convective SIGMETs, Center Weather Advisories, AIRMETs, and uregent PIREPs. Source of hazardous weather informatino which makes this data available on a continuous basis.
What is a METAR?
Aviation Routine Weather Report. Hourly surface observation of conditions observed @ an airport.
Describe the elements of a METAR.
a. Type of Report - METAR- SPECI
b. ICAO station identifier
c. Date and time of report-6 digit date/time group appended with Z(UTC)DDHHMM
d. Modifier (as req)-auto (A01-A02 for sensor type)
e. Wind-5 digit group (6 if over 99 knots) first 3 digits wind direction in º true, next 2 speed in kts.
f. Visibility: statute miles
g. Runway visual range
h. Weather phenomena
i. Sky condition-amount/height/type
j. Temp/dew point group- (minus temps prefixed M)
k. Altimeter - 4 digit prefixed A
l. Remarks
Describe several types of weather observing programs available.
a. Manual observations-reports mande from airport locations staffed by FAA or NWS.
b. AWOS-Automated Weather Observing System; consists of various sensors, a processor, a computer-generated voice subsystem, and a transmitter to broadcast local, minute-by-minute weather data directly to the pilot. Observations will include the prefix AUTO in data.
c. AWOS Broadcasts-computer generated voice is used to automate the broadcast of minute-by-minute weather observations.
d. ASOS-Automated Surface Observing System; the primary U.S. surface weather observing system. Up to 993 systems installed through the US providing minute-by-minute observations generating METARs and other aviation weather info. Transmitted over a discrete VHF radio freq or the voice portion of a NAVAID. ASOS includes the prefix AUTO in the report data.
What are PIREPs (UA), and where are they usually found?
These reports contain info concerning weather as observed by pilots en route. Required elements for all PIREPs are message type, location, UTC time, flight level (altitudes are MSL), type of aircraft, and at least one weather element encountered (visibility in SM, distances in NM). A PIREP is usually transmitted to a surface aviation weather report or placed into collectives. Coded "UA".
What are Radar Weather Reports (SD)?
General areas of precipitation, including rain, snow, and thunderstorms, can be observed by radar. The radar weather report (SD) includes the type, intensity, and location of the echo top of the precip. All heights are reported MSL. Radar stations report each hour at H+35. SDs should be used along with METARs, satellite photos, and forcasts when planning a flight, to help in thunderstorm area avoidance. Once airborne, depend on Flight Watch, which has the capability to display current radar images, airborne radar, or visual sighting to evade individual storms.
What are TAFs?
Terminal Aerodrome Forcast is a concise statement of the expected meteorological conditions within a 5SM radious from the center of an airport's runway complex during a 24hr period. Uses same weather code found in METAR.
a. Type of reports-routine or amended (TAF AMD)
b. ICAO station identifier
c. Date and time of origin-DDTTT followed by Z.
d. Valid period date and time-is 2 digit date followed by 2 digit beginning and 2 digit ending hours in Z. Routine TAFs are valid for 24 hours and are issued 4 times daily @ 0000Z, 0600Z, 1200Z, and 1800Z.
e. Forcasts- Wind, sig weather, sky condition, nonconvective low-level wind shear, change indicators, probability.
What is and Aviation Area Forecast (FA)
A forcast of visual meteorological conditions (VMC), clouds, and general weather contitions over an area the size of several states. To understand the complete weather picture, the FA must be used along with inflight weather advisories to determine forecast enroute weather and to interpolate conditions at airports where no TAFs are issued. FAs are issued 3 times a day by the Aviation Weather Center (AWC). for each of the 6 areas in the contiguous 48 states.
What information is provided by Area Forcast (FA)?
4 sections
a. Communications and product header section - identifies the office from which the FA is issued, the date and time of issue, the product name, the valid times and the states and the states and/or areas covered by the FA.
b. Precautionary statement section (IFR conditions etc)
c. Synopsis section-summary of the location and movements of fronts, pressure systems, and circulation patters for an 18 hour period. References to other phenomena the forecaster considers useful may also be included.
d. VFR Clouds and Weather section-contains a 12 specific forecast, followed by a six-hour categorical outlook giving a total forecast period of 18 hours. VFR CLDS/WX sections is usually several pargraphs long, breakdown by states or well known geographical areas. Section gives general description of clouds and weather which covers an area greater than 3000 square miles and is sig to VFR flight operations.
What are Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories (WST, WS, WA)?
Forecasts to advise enroute aircraft of development of potentially hazardous weather, in 3 types: SIGMET, AIRMET, and Convective SIGMET. Heights are referenced MSL, except in the case of CIG, which indicate AGL.
What is a Convective SIGMET (WST)?
(WST) implies severe or greater turbulence, sever icing and low-level with shear. They may be issued for any convective situation which the forecaster feels is hazardous to all catagories of aircraft. Convective SIGMET bulletins are issued for the (E), (C), and (W) US. Bulletins are issued hourly at H+55. Special bulletins are issued at any time as req and updated @ H+55. Text of the bulletin consists of either an observation and a forcast, or just a forecast valid up to 2 hours.
a. Severe thunderstorm due to surface winds greater than or equal to 50 knots, hail at the surface greater than or equal to 3/4 inches in diameter, Tornadoes.
b. Embedded Thunderstorms
d. Thunderstorms producing greater than or equal to heavy precip that affects 40% or more of an area at least 3000 square miles.
What is a SIGMET (WS)?
(WS) advises of non-convective weather that is potentially hazardous to all aircraft. Issued for the six areas corresponding to the FA areas. Maximum forcast period is 4 hours. Issued when:
a. Severe icing not associated with tstorms
b. Severe Turbulence or clear air turbulence (CAT) not associate with tstorms
c. Duststorms or sandstorms lowering surface or inflight vis to below 3 miles
d. Volcanic ash.
What is an AIRMET (WA)?
(WA) Advisories of sig wthr phenomena that describe conditions at intensities lower than those which require SIGMET. Intended for use by pilots in the preflight and issued every 6 hours beginning @ 0145 UTC during Central Daylight Time,a dn @ 0245 UTC during CST. Unscheduled updates and corrections are issued as nec. AIRMET bulletin includes an outlook for conditions expected after the AIRMET valid period. Contain IFR, mountain obscuration, turbulence, strong surface winds, icing, and freezing levels.
What is TWEB?
Transcribed weather broadcast includes synopsis and forcast for more than 200 routes and local vicinities. Valid for 12 hours and are issued 4 times a day @ 0200, 0800, 1400, and 2000Z in a variety of sources (TIBS, PATWAS, and more).
TWEB route forcast or vicinity forcast will not be issued if the TAF for that airport has not been issued. TWEB route forcast is for a 50NM wide corridor along a line connecting the end points of the route. Local vicinity forecast covers an area w/ a radius of 50NM. Describe sustained surface winds (25kts or greater), visibility, weather and obscurations to vision, sky conditions, mountain obscurment, and nonconvective low-level wind shear.
What is a Winds and Temperatures Aloft Forecast (FD)?
Forecasted for specific locations in the contiguous US and for a network of locatins in AK and HI. Made twice daily based on 00Z and 12Z radiosonde data for use during specific time intervals. FDs contain:
a. Valid time period the FD may be used, and a notation "TEMPS NEG ABV 24000".
b. FT indicates the levels of the wind and temp data. Through 12000 ft the levels are true altitude. From 18000ft levels are pressure altitude.
c. A 4 digit group shows wind direction in tens of degtees, and the second 2 are the wind speed in kts. 6 digit group includes forecast temp in °C.
d. No winds are forcasted within 1500 ft of station elevation.
e No temps are forecasted for any level w/in 2500 ft of station elevation.
f. if a wind direction is coded between 51 and 86, the wind speed is 100 kts or greater. (731960 73-50=230°,100+19=119, temp -60°C).
g. Wind speed is forecasted to be 200 kts or greater, the wind group is coded as 99kts. (7799 77-50=270° at 199kts or greater).
h. Forecast speed is less than 5kts, the coded group is "9900" which means light and variable.
What valuable info can be determined from Winds and Temperatures Aloft Forecasts (FD)?
Most favorable altitude-based on winds and direction of flight.

Areas of possible icing;by noting air temps of +2°C to -20°C.

Temperature inversions.

Turbulence-by observing abrupt changes in wind direction and speed @ diff altitudes.
What are Center Weather Advisories (CWA)?
An aviation warning for use by aircrews to anticipate and avoid adverse weather conditions in the en route and terminal environments. The CWA is not a flight planning product: instead it reflects current conditions expected at the time of issueance and/or a short range forecast for conditions expected to begin w/in 2 hours of issueance. CWAs are valid for a max of 2 hours. If conditions are expected to continue beyond 2 hrs a statement will be included with CWA.
What is a Convective Outlook (AC)?
National forecast of thunderstorms, in 2 parts; Day 1 Convective Outlook (first 24) and Day 2 Convective outlook (next 24hrs). Describes areas in which there is a slight, mod, or hight risk of severe tstorms, as well as areas of general (non-severe) tstorms. Times of issuance for day 1 are 0600Z, 1300Z, 1630Z, 2000Z, and 0100Z. The initial day 2 issueanceis @ 0830Z during standard time and 0730Z during daylight time, updated @ 1730Z. The AC is a flight planning tool used to avoid tstorms.
Give some examples of current weather charts available at the FSS or NWSO used in flight planning.
a. Surface analysis chart
b. Weather depiction chart
c. Radar summary chart
d. Significant weather prognostic chart
e. Winds and temperatures aloft chart
f. Composite moisture stability chart
g. Convective outlook chart
h. Constant pressure analysis chart
i. volcanic ash forecast transport and dispersion chart
What is a Surface Analysis Chart?
This is a computer prepared chart that covers the contiguous 48 states and adjacent areas. The chart is transmitted every three hours. The surface analysis chart provides a ready means of locating pressure systems and fronts. It also gives an overview of winds, temps and dew point temps at chart time. When using the chart, keep in mind that weather moves and conditions change. Using the surface analysis chart in conjunction with other information gives a more complete weather picture.
What information does a Weather Depiction Chart provide?
It is computer generated with a weather observer's analysis of fronts from METAR reports. It gives a broad overview of the observed flying category conditions at the valid time of the chart. Begins @ 01Z ea day, is transmitted @ 3 hour intervals, and is valid at the time of the plotted data. the plotted data for ea station area are : total sky cover, cloud height or ceiling, weather and obstructions to vision and visibilities. It is an ideal place to begin in preparing for a weather briefing and flight planning. One can gain a birds eye view of areas of favorable and adverse weather conditions at chart time.
Define IFR, MVFR, and VFR.
IFR - Instrument Flight Rules - Ceilings less than 1000 ft and/or visibilities less than 3 miles.

MVFR - Marginal VFR - Ceiling 1000 to 3000 ft inclusive and/or visibility 3 to 5 miles inclusive.

VFR - Visual Flight Rules - No ceiling, or ceiling greater than 3000 and visibility greater than 5 miles.
What are Radar Summary Charts?
Computer generated graphical display of a collection of automated radar weather reports (SDs). Chart displays areas of precipitation as well as info about type, intensity, configuration, coverage, echo top, and cell movement of precip. Severe weather watches are plotted if they are in effect when the chart is valid. The chart is available hourly with a valid time of 35 min past each hour.
This chart aids in preflight planning by identifying general areas and movement of precip and/or thunderstorms. Displays drops or ice particles of precipitation size only; it does not display clouds or fog. Absence of echoes does not guarantee clear weather, and cloud tops will most likely be higher than the tops of the precip echoes detected by radar, the radar summary chart must be used along with other charts, reports, and forecasts for best effectiveness.
What aer Significant Weather Prognostic Charts?
called "progs," these charts portray forecasts of selected weather conditions at specified valid times (12, 24, 36, and 48 hour progs). Each valid time is the time @ which the forecast conditions are expected to occur,made from a comprehensive set of observed weather conditions. The observed conditions are extended forward in time and become forecasts by considering atmospheric and environmental processes. Forecast info for the surface to 24,000 ft is provided by the low level significant weather prog chart. Forcast info from above 24,000 to 60,000 ft is provided by the high level significant weather prog chart.
Describe a US Low-Level Significant Weather Prog Chart.
A Day One forecast of significant weather for the conterminous US, pertaining to the layer from the surface to FL240. With 2 forecast panels. The two lower panels depict the 12 and 24 hour surface progs, and the two upper panels depict the 12 and 24 hour significant weather progs. Issued four times a day @ 00Z, 06Z, 12Z, and 18Z. Covered are forecast positions and characteristics of pressure systems, fronts, and precipitation. Much insight can be gained by evalueating the individual fields of pressure patterns, fronts, precip, weather flying categories, freezing levels, and turbulence displayed on the chart.
What is a Forecast Winds and Temperatures Aloft Chart (FD)?
A computer generated chart depicting both observed and forecast winds and temps aloft. Forecast winds and temperatures aloft are prepared for eight levels on eight seperate panels. The levels are 6000, 9000, 12000, 18000, 24000, 30000, 34000, and 39000 feet MSL. They are available daily as 12 hour progs valid @ 1200Z and 0000Z. These charts are typically used to determine winds at a proposed altitude or to select the best altitude for a proposed flight. Temperatures also can be determined from the forecast charts. interpolation must be used to determine winds and temperatures at a level between charts and data when the time period is other than the valid time of the chart.
What is a Composite Moisture Stability Chart?
An analysis chart using observed upper air data. The chart is composed of four panels including stability, freezing level, precipitable water, and average relative humidity. This computer generated chart is available twice daily with valid times of 12Z and 00Z. It is used to determine the characteristics of a particular weather system in terms of stability, moisture, and possible aviation hazards. These characteristics tend to move with the associated weather systems, such as lows, highs, and fronts. Exercise caution, as modification of these characteristics could occur through development, dissipation, or the movement of the system.
What is a Convective Outlook Chart?
This chart depicts areas forecast to have thunderstorms, and is presented in two panels. The left hand panel is the Day 1 Convective Outlook, and the right hand panel is the Day 2 Convective Outlook. "Day 1" outlines areas in the continental US where thundershorms are forecasted during that period. It si issued 5 times daily (0600Z, 1300Z, 1630Z, 2000Z, and 0100Z) and all issuances are valid until 12Z the following day. The outlook issued qualifies the level of risk (SLGT, MDT, HIGH) as well as the areas of general tstorms. "Day 2" contains the same info as the Day 1 chart, and is issued twice a day (0830Z and 1730Z) in a period from 12Z the following day to 12Z the next day.
What are Constant Pressure Analysis Charts?
Any surface of equal pressure in the atmosphere is a constant pressure surface. A constant pressure analysis chart is an upper air weather map where all information depicted is at the specified pressure of the chart. From these charts, a pilot can approximate the observed air temp, wind, and temperature-dewpoint spread alon a proposed route. They also depict highs, lows, troughs, and ridges aloft by the height contour patterns resembling isobars on a surface map. Twice daily, six computer prepared constant pressure charts are transmitted by fax for six pressure levels: 5000ft, 10000ft, 18000ft, 30000ft, 34000ft, 39,000ft.
Describe a Volcanic Ash Forecats Transport and Dispersion Chart.
Presents the relative concentrations of ash following a volcanic eruption for three layers of the atmosphere in addition to a composite of ash concentration through the atmosphere. The chart focuses on hazards to aircraft flight operaions caused by volcanic eruption with an emphasis on the ash cloud location in time and space. It uses Naitonal Centers for Environmental Prediction forecast data to determine the location of ash concentration over 6 hour and 12 hour time intervals. The chart is strictly for advanced flight planning purposes. It is not intended to take the place of SIGMETs regarding volcanic eruptions and ash.
What are the four dynamic forces that act on an airplane during all maneuvers?
Lift - the upward acting force
Weight - downward acting force
Thrust - forward acting force
Drag - backward acting force
What flight condition will result in the sum of the opposing forces being equal?
Steady-state, straight and level, unaccelerated flight, the sum of the opposing forces is equal to zero.
What is an airfoil?
A device which generates lift. Wings, horizontal tail surfaces, vertical tail surfaces, and propellers are airfoils.
What is the "angle of incidence"?
The angle formed by the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the chord of the wing. It is measured by the angle at which the wing is attached to the fuselage. It is fixed and cannot be changed by the pilot.
What is a "relative wind"?
The direction of the airflow with respect to the wing. When a wing is moving forward and downward the relative wind moves backward and upward. The flight pathe and relative wind are always parallel but travel in opposite directions.
What is the "angle of attack"?
The angle between the wing chord line and the direction of the relative wind: it can be changed by the pilot.
What is Bernoulli's Principle?
The pressure of a fluid decreases at points where the speed of the fluid increases. Applies to an airfoil by creating faster airflow and reduced pressure above and impact airflow for higher pressure below creating lift.
What are several factors which will affect both lift and drag?
Wing area - Lift and drag acting on a wing are roughly proportional to the wing area. A pilot can change wing area by using certain types of flaps (fowler flaps)
Shape of the airfoil - As the upper curvature is increased the lift produced increases. Lowing an aileron or flap can accomplish this. Ice or frost on a wing can disturb normal airflow, changing its camber, and disrupting its lifting capability.
Angle of attack - both lift and drag are increased when AOA is increased.
Velocity of air - increase of air passing over the wing increases lift and drag.
Air density - vary directly with the density of the air. Air density is affected by pressure, temp, and humidity.
What is torque effect?
Newtons third law - for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. As internal engine parts and the propeller are revolving in one direction, and equal force is trying to rotate the aircraft in the opposite direction. Greatest at low airspeeds with high power and high AOA.
What effect does torque reaction have on an airplane on the ground and in flight?
In flight torque reaction is acting around the logitudinal axis, tending to make the airplane roll. To compensate, some of the older airplanes are rigged in a manner to create more lift on the wing that is bing forced downward. More modern aircraft are designed with the engine offset to counteract this effect.
On the ground during takeoff roll, and additional turning moment around the vertical axis is induced by torque reaction. As the left side of the airplane is being forced down, more weight is being placed on the left main landing gear. This results in more ground friction, or drag, on the left tire than on the right, causing a further turning moment to the left.
What are the four factors that contribute to the left turning tendency of an aircraft?
Torque reaction of engine and propeller - equal and opposite reaction

Gyroscopic precession: the resultant action or deflection of a spinning object when a force is applied to the outer rim of iths rotational mass. If the axis of the propeller is tilted, the resulting force will be exerted 90° ahead in the direction of rotation and in the same direction as the applied force. Most noticeable in taildraggers when the tail is raised.

Corkscrewing effect of the propeller slipstream strikes the vertical tail surface on the left side pushing the tail to the right and yawing the airplane to the left.

Asymmetrical loading of the propeller (P-Factor) @ high angles of attack the bite of the downward moving propeller blade is greater tan the bite of the upward moving blade. The downward moving blade is meeting the relative wind at a greater angle of attack than the upward moving blade causing greater thrust on the downward moving side forcing the airplane to the left.
What is centrifugal force?
The equal and opposite reaction of the airplane to the change in direction, and it acts equal and opposite to the horizontal component of lift.
What is load factor?
The ration of the total load supported by the airplanes wing to the actual weight of the airplane and its contents. Also expressed as the ratio of given load to the pull of gravity (3 Gs is 3X the weight of the airplane imposed upon the wings due to curved flight).
For what 2 reasons in load factor important to pilots?
Danger of overstressing the airframe

Danger of increased stall speed - makes stalls possible at seemingly safe flight speeds.
What situations may result in load factors reaching or exceeding the maximum?
Level Turns - increases at a terrific rate after bank has reached 45° or 50°. Load factor in 60° bank is 2Gs, 80° bank is 5.76Gs.

Turbulence - Severe vertical gusts cause a sudden increas in angle of attack, resulting in large loads which are resisted by the inertia of the airplane.

Speed - Amount of excess load that can be imposed upon a wing depends on how fast the airplane is flying. Below maneuvering speed, the airplane will stall before the load factor can become excessive. Above, the limit load factor for which an airplane is stressed can be exceeded by abrupt or excessive application of the controls or by strong turbulence.
What are the different operational categories for aircraft and within which category does your aircraft fall?
Normal +3.8 to -1.52
Utility +4.4 to -1.76
Aerobatic +6.0 to -3.00

The Cessna 152 is certified in the utility category.
What effect does an increase in load factor have on stalling speed?
Stalling speed will increase. An airplane can be stalled at any airspeed within limits of its structure and the strength of the pilot. The formula for determining the speed at which a wing will stall is that the stalling speed increases in proportion to the square root of the load factor.
Define the term Maneuvering Speed.
Va is the maximum speed at which abrupt control movement can be applied or at which the airplane could be flown in trubulence without exceeding design load factor limits. Below this speed the aircraft should stall before the load becomes excessive.
Discuss the effect on maneuvering speed of an increase or decrease of weight.
Maneuvering speed increases with and increase in weight and decreases with a decrease in weight. An aircraft operating at a reduced weight is more vulnerable to rapid acceleration encountered during flight through turbulence or gusts.
What causes an airplane to stall?
When the critical angle of attack has been exceeded. When the AOA increases to approx 18°-20°, the air can no longer flow smoothly over the top wing surface. This can occur at any airspeed, in any attitude, with any power setting.
What is a spin?
When the aircraft descends in a helical path while flying at an AOA greater than the critical angle of attack. Spins result from aggravated stalls in either a slip or a skid. No stall = no spin.
What causes a spin?
Exceeding the critical AOA while applying excessive or insufficient rudder, and to a lesser extent, aileron.
When are spins most likely to occur?
Can occur in any phase of flight but are most likely to occur:

Engine failure on takeoff during climbout - pilot tries to stretch glide to landing area by increasing back pressure or makes an uncoordinated turn back to departure runway at low airspeed.

Crossed-control turn from base to final - pilot overshoots final (crosswind?) and makes uncoordinated turn at a low airspeed.

Engine failure on approach to landing - pilot tries to stretch glide to runway by increasing back pressure.

Go-around with full nose up trip - pilot applies power with full flaps and nose up trim compined with uncoordinated use of rudder.

Go-around with improper flap retraction - pilot applies power and retracts flaps rapidly resulting in a rapid sink rate followed by and instinctive increase in back pressure.
What procedure should be used to recover from an inadvertent spin?
Close the throttle

Neutralize the ailerons

Apply full opposite rudder

Briskly move the elevator control forward to the neutral position (varies by a/c)

Once stall is broken the spinning will stop. Neutralize the rudder when spinning stops.

When the rudder is neutralized, gradually apply enough aft elevator pressure to return to level flight.
What causes adverse yaw?
When turning an airplane the downward deflected airleron produces more lift and more drag. While the opposite aileron has less lift and less drag. This added drag attempts to pull or veer the airplanes nose in the direction of the raised wing; the opposite to that desired.
What is ground effect?
Condition of improved performance the airplane experiences when it is operating near the ground. A change occurs in the three dimensional flow pattern around the airplane because the airflow around the wing is restricted by the ground surface. This reduces the wings upwash, downwash, and wingtip vortices. Must be close to the ground.
What major problems can be caused by ground effect?
During landing - @ height of approx 1/10 of a wing span above the surface, drag may be 40% less than when the airplane is operating out of ground effect. Any excess speed during landing may result in significant floating.

During Takeoff - the reduced drag may allow the aircraft to takeoff below recommended speed. As airplane rises out of ground effect speed deficient the greater induced drag may result in marginal climb performance, or may settle back to the runway in extreme conditions.
Define Empty weight
Airframe, engines, and all items of operating equipment that have fixed location and are permanently installed in the aircraft. Includes hydraulic fluid, unuseable fuel, and undrainable oil.
Gross Weight
Maximum allowable weight of both the airplane and its contents.
Useful load
Weight of the pilot, copilot, passengers, baggage, usable fuel, and drainable oil.
Arm
Horizontal distance in inches from the reference datum line to the center of gravity of the item.
Moment
Product of the weight of an item multiplied by its arm. Moments are expressed in pound-inches.
Center of Gravity
Point about which an aircraft would balance if it were possible to suspend it at that point. Expressed in inches from datum.
Datum
Imaginary vertical plane or line from which all measurements of arm are taken. Set by manufacturer.
What basic equation is used in all weight and balance problems to find the center of gravity location of an airplane and/or its components?
W.A.M.

Weight X Arm = Moment

Weight = Moment/Arm

(Total) Moment
Arm (CG) = ------------
(Total) Weight
What performance characteristics will be adversely affected when an aircraft has been overloaded?
Higher takeoff speed
Longer takeoff run
Reduced rate & angle of climb
Lower maximum altitude
Shorter range
Reduced Cruising speed
Reduced maneuverability
Higher stalling speed
Higher landing speed
Longer landing roll
Excessive weight on the nosewheel
What causes a spin?
Exceeding the critical AOA while applying excessive or insufficient rudder, and to a lesser extent, aileron.
When are spins most likely to occur?
Can occur in any phase of flight but are most likely to occur:

Engine failure on takeoff during climbout - pilot tries to stretch glide to landing area by increasing back pressure or makes an uncoordinated turn back to departure runway at low airspeed.

Crossed-control turn from base to final - pilot overshoots final (crosswind?) and makes uncoordinated turn at a low airspeed.

Engine failure on approach to landing - pilot tries to stretch glide to runway by increasing back pressure.

Go-around with full nose up trip - pilot applies power with full flaps and nose up trim compined with uncoordinated use of rudder.

Go-around with improper flap retraction - pilot applies power and retracts flaps rapidly resulting in a rapid sink rate followed by and instinctive increase in back pressure.
What procedure should be used to recover from an inadvertent spin?
Close the throttle

Neutralize the ailerons

Apply full opposite rudder

Briskly move the elevator control forward to the neutral position (varies by a/c)

Once stall is broken the spinning will stop. Neutralize the rudder when spinning stops.

When the rudder is neutralized, gradually apply enough aft elevator pressure to return to level flight.
What causes adverse yaw?
When turning an airplane the downward deflected airleron produces more lift and more drag. While the opposite aileron has less lift and less drag. This added drag attempts to pull or veer the airplanes nose in the direction of the raised wing; the opposite to that desired.
What is ground effect?
Condition of improved performance the airplane experiences when it is operating near the ground. A change occurs in the three dimensional flow pattern around the airplane because the airflow around the wing is restricted by the ground surface. This reduces the wings upwash, downwash, and wingtip vortices. Must be close to the ground.
What major problems can be caused by ground effect?
During landing - @ height of approx 1/10 of a wing span above the surface, drag may be 40% less than when the airplane is operating out of ground effect. Any excess speed during landing may result in significant floating.

During Takeoff - the reduced drag may allow the aircraft to takeoff below recommended speed. As airplane rises out of ground effect speed deficient the greater induced drag may result in marginal climb performance, or may settle back to the runway in extreme conditions.
Define Empty weight
Airframe, engines, and all items of operating equipment that have fixed location and are permanently installed in the aircraft. Includes hydraulic fluid, unuseable fuel, and undrainable oil.
Gross Weight
Maximum allowable weight of both the airplane and its contents.
Useful load
Weight of the pilot, copilot, passengers, baggage, usable fuel, and drainable oil.
Arm
Horizontal distance in inches from the reference datum line to the center of gravity of the item.
Moment
Product of the weight of an item multiplied by its arm. Moments are expressed in pound-inches.
Center of Gravity
Point about which an aircraft would balance if it were possible to suspend it at that point. Expressed in inches from datum.
Datum
Imaginary vertical plane or line from which all measurements of arm are taken. Set by manufacturer.
What basic equation is used in all weight and balance problems to find the center of gravity location of an airplane and/or its components?
W.A.M.

Weight X Arm = Moment

Weight = Moment/Arm

(Total) Moment
Arm (CG) = ------------
(Total) Weight
What performance characteristics will be adversely affected when an aircraft has been overloaded?
Higher takeoff speed
Longer takeoff run
Reduced rate & angle of climb
Lower maximum altitude
Shorter range
Reduced Cruising speed
Reduced maneuverability
Higher stalling speed
Higher landing speed
Longer landing roll
Excessive weight on the nosewheel
What effect does a forward center of gravity have on an aircrafts flight characteristics?
Higher stall speed - stalling angle of attack is reached at a higher speed due to increased wing loading.

Slower cruise speed - increased drag; greater AOA is required to maintain altitude.

More stable - the center of gravity is farther forward from the center of pressure which increases longitudinal stability.

Greater back elevator pressure required - longer takeoff roll: higher approach speeds and problems with landing flare.
What effect does a rearward center of gravity have on an aircrafts flight characteristics?
Lower stall speed - less wing loading.

Higher cruise speed - reduced drag; smaller AOA required to maintain altitude.

Less stable - stall and spin recovery more difficult; the center of gravity is closer to the center of pressure, causing longitudinal instablility.
What are the standard weights assumed for the following when calculating weight and balance problems?
Crew and passengers = 170 lbs
Gasoline = 6 lbs/ gal
Oil = 7.5 lbs/ gal
Water = 8.35 lbs/ gal
What are some of the main elements of aircraft performance?
Takeoff and landing distance
Rate of Climb
Ceiling
Payload
Range
Speed
Fuel Economy
What factors affect the performance of an aircraft during takeoffs and landings?
Air Density (density altitude)
Surface Wind
Runway Surface
Upslope or Downslope of runway
Weight
What effect does wind have on aircraft performance?
Takeoff - a headwind will increas the airplane performance by shortening the takeoff distance and increasing the angle of climb. A tailwind will decrease performance by increasing the takeoff distance and reducing the angle of climb.

Landing - a headwind will increase airplane performance by steepening the approach angle and reducing the landing distance. A tailwind will decrease performance by decreasing the approach angle and increasing the landing distance.

Cruise flight - winds aloft have somewhat the opposite effect on performance. Headwind will decrease performance by reducing ground speed, which in turn increases fuel requirements. Tailwind will increase performance by increasing the ground speed, which in turn reduces the fuel requirement for the flight.
How does weight affect takeoff and landing performance?
Increased weight can have a significant effect on takeoff performance:
Higher liftoff speed
Greater mass to accelerate
Increased retarding force (drag and ground friction)
Longer takeoff distance

The effect of gross weight on landing distance is that the airplane will require a greater speed to support the airplane at the landing AOA and lift coefficient resulting in and increased landing distance.
What effect does an increase in density altitude have on takeoff and landing performance?
Increased takeoff distance (greater takeoff TAS req)
Reduced rate of climb (decreased thrust and reduced acceleration)
Increased true airspeed on approach and landing (same IAS)
Increased landing roll distance.
Define the term density altitude.
Pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard temperature.

(performance altitude)
How does air density affect aircraft performance?
Direct effect on:
Lift produced by the wings
Power output of the engine
Propeller efficiency
Drag forces
What factors affect air density?
Altitude - higher = less dense
Temperature - warmer = less
Humidity - more = less dense
How does temperature, altitude, and humidity affect density altitude?
Density altitude will increase when Hot, High, Humid

Density altitude will decrease when cold, low, dry.
Vso
Stall speed in landing configuration; the calibrated power off stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable in the landing configuration.