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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
When was Psychology "born" and name 3 early researchers

Wilhelm Wundt
John Watson
William James
2 Types of Research. Define.
1) Basic- research designed to increase knowledge (whther immediately applicable or not)

2) Applied- Research conducted to find solutions to problems

see notes for more
Evaluation Research (Program Evaluation)
assesses the effects of social or institutional programs on behavior

Type of Applied Research
3 General Goals of Psychological Research
Describe Behavior
Predict Behavior
Explain Behavior

The 4 Values of Research to the Student
1) Understand relevant professional research
2) Knowledge of research creates more intelligent and effective research consumers (in daily life)
3) The development of Critical Thinking
4) Helps one to become an authority in a specific area
5 Components of Critical Thinking:
1) Asking Questions
2) Considering Alternatives
3) Insisting on Hard Evidence
4) Refining Methods
5) Critiquing others' & own work
3 Criteria for Scientific Investigation:
1) Systematic Empiricism
2) Public Verification
3) Solvable Problems

2 Primary Tasks of Scientists
Define Theory (according to book)
a set of propositions that attempt to specify the interrelationships among a set of concepts
4 Given Ways a Theory may come about:
1) Immersion in the existing research literature
2) Explanation of observed patterns in collected data
3) Developed from Case Studies or everyday observation
4) Unsought theoretical insight (chance discovery)
is a *specific* proposition that logically follows from a theory.

think Hypo, Thesis
2 ways Hypostheses are derived
Empirical Generalization
Hypothesses that are based solely on previously observed patterns of results
methodological pluralism
using many different methods and designs to test a theory
Strategy of Strong Inference
simulatneously testing 2 opposing theories
Conceptual Definitions
dictionary-like definition
Operational Definitions
defines a concept by specifying precisely how the concept is measured or manipulated in the study
the logical impossibility of proof
support for HYPOTHESIS does NOT necessarily mean the *THEORY* is true
the practical impossibility of Disproof
we can't ever disprove a theory- sometimes results don't support hypothesis, but this doesn't mean theory is false
examples of confounds (4)

leads to practical impossibility of disproof
1) poor measurement
2) failure to control for extraneous variables
3) improper design or use of statistical methods
4) biased samples
4 Strategies of Behavioral Research
1) Descriptive
2) Correlational
3) Experimental
4) Quasi-experimental