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49 Cards in this Set

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Bomb Calorimeter
an instrument that measures the heat energy released when foods are burned, thus providing and estimate of the potential energy of the foods
Appetite
the integrated response to the sight, smell, thought, and taste of food that initiates or delays eating
Hunger
the painful sensation caused by lack of food that initiates food seeking behavior
Hypothalamus
a brain center that controls activities such as maintenance of water balance, regulation of body temperature, and control of appetite
Satiation
the feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a meal and halts eating. It determines how much food is consumed during a meal
Satiety
The feeling of fullness and satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal. It determines how much time passes between meals
Satiating
having the power to suppress hunger and inhibit eating
Neuropeptide Y
a chemical produced in the brain that stimulates appetite, diminishes energy expenditure, and increases fat storage
Thermogenesis
the generation of heat; used in physiology and nutrition studies as an index of how much energy the body is expending
Basal Metabolism
the energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
the rate of energy use for metabolism under specified conditions: after a 12-hour fast and restful sleep, without any physical activity or emotional excitement, and in a comfortable setting. It is usually expressed as kcalories per kilogram body weight per hour
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)
similar to the basal metabolic rate (BMR), a measure of the energy use of a person at rest in a comfortable setting, but with less stringent criteria for recent food intake and physical activity. This rate is slightly higher than the BMR
Lean Body Mass
the body minus it fat content
Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
an estimation of the energy required to process food (digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store ingested nutrients)
Specific Dynamic Effect (SDE)
another name for Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
Specific Dynamic Activity (SDA)
another name for the Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
Diet-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT)
the sum of the TEF and any increase in the metabolic rate due to overeating
Adaptive Thermogenesis
adjustments in energy expenditure related to changes in environment such as extreme cold and to physiological events such as overfeeding, trauma, and changes in hormone status
Body Composition
the proportions of muscle, bone, fat, and other tissue that make up a person's total body weight
Body Mass Index (BMI)
an index of a persons weight in relation to height, determined by dividing the weight (in kilograms) by the square of the height (in meters)
Underweight
Body weight below some standard of acceptable weight that is usually defined in relation to height (such as BMI); a BMI below 18.5
Overweight
body weight above some standard of acceptable weight that is usually defined in relation to height (such as BMI); BMI 25 to 29.9
Obese
overweight with adverse health effects; BMI 30 or higher
Intra-abdominal Fat
fat stored within the abdominal cavity in association with the internal abdominal organs, as opposed to the fat stored directly under the skin (subcutaneous fat)
Central Obesity
excess fat around the trunk of the body; also called abdominal fat or upper-body fat
Waist Circumference
an anthropometric measurement used to assess a person's abdominal fat
Insulin Resistance
the condition in which a normal amount of insulin produces a subnormal effect in muscle, adipose, and liver cells, resulting in an elevated fasting glucose; a metabolic consequence of obesity that precedes type 2 diabetes
Inflammation
an immunological response to cellular injury characterized by an increase in white blood cells
Amenorrhea
the absence of or cessation of menstruation
Anorexia Nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight and a distortion in perception of body shape and weight
Binge-eating Disorder
An eating disorder with criteria similar to those of bulimia nervosa, excluding purging or other compensatory behaviors
Bulimia Nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise
Cathartic
a strong laxative
Disordered eating
eating behaviors that are neither normal nor healthy, including restrained eating, fasting, binge eating, and purging
Eating Disorder
disturbances in eating behavrior that jeopardize a person's physical or psychological health
Emetic
an agent that causes vomiting
Female Athlete Triad
a potentially fatal combination of three medical problems - disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis
Muscle Dysmorphia
a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with building muscle mass
Stress Fractures
bone damage or breaks caused by stress on bone surfaces during exercise
Unspecified eating disorders
eating disorders that do not meet the defined criteria for specific eating disorders
How is food intake regulated in the human body?
1) Appetite - initiate eating
2) Hunger - initiate eating
3) Satiation - stops eating
4) Satiety - delays eating
What are the components of energy expenditure?
1) basal metabolism
2) physical activity
3) food consumption
4) sometimes a fourth category is involved for adaptation
What constitutes energy balance?
when energy consumed equals the energy expended, body weight is stable
How is a healthy weight established?
1) the criterion of fashion
2) the criterion of health
3) Body Mass Index - today's standard
Name the various methods used to diagnose overweight and obesity.
1) BMI - 25-30= Overweight, .30= Obese
2) Fat Distribution - central obesity vs lower body fat
3) Waist Circumference - women >35", men>40"
4) Skinfold measures
5) Hydrodensitometry
6) Bioelectrical impedance
7) Air displacement plethysmography
8) Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
What factors affect energy balance in overweight and obesity
1) Genetics - proteins leptin and ghrelin, other uncoupled proteins
2) Environment - overeating, physical inactivity
What practical strategies may aid in weight loss?
1) be realistic about energy intake
2) emphasize nutritional adequacy
3) eat small portions
4) lower energy density
5) remember water
6) focus on fiber
7) choose fats sensibly
8) watch other empty kcals
9) include physical activity regularly
What factors are used to estimate energy requirements?
1) gender
2) growth
3) age
4) physical activity
5) body composition and body size
Name the 3 main eating disorders
1) anorexia nervosa
2) bulimia nervosa
3) eating disorder not specified including binge-eating disorder and compulsive overeating