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67 Cards in this Set

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Photosynthesis
the process by which green plants use the sun's energy to make carbohydrates form carbon dioxide and water
Fuel
Compounds that cells can use for energy. Glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids make up the majority of these; others include ketone bodies, lactate, glycerol, and alcohol
Metabolism
The sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in living cells.
Energy Metabolism
All the reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from food.
Anabolism
reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones; they require energy
Catabolism
reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones; these reactions release energy
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate
ATP - high energy compound composed of a purine (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups
Coupled Reactions
Pairs of chemical reactions in which some of the energy released from the breakdown of one compounds is used to create a bond in the formation of another compound
Coenzymes
Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity; they have B vitamins as part of their structures
Pyruvate
a 3-carbon compound that plays a key role in energy metabolism
Acetyl CoA
a 2-carbon compound to which a molecule of CoA is attached
CoA
the coenzyme derived from the B vitamin pantothenic acid and central to energy metabolism
TCA cycle (full name)
Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
TCA cycle
a series of metabolic reactions that break down molecules of acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms
Another name for the TCA cycle
Kreb's cycle, named for the biochemist who elucidated its reactions
Electron transport chain
the final pathway in energy metabolism that transports electrons from hydrogen to oxygen and captures the energy released in the bonds of ATP
Glycolysis
the metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate; it does not require oxygen
Anaerobic
not requiring oxygen
aerobic
requiring oxygen
Mitochondria
the cellular organelles responsible for producing ATP; made of membranes (lipid and protein) with enzymes mounted on them
Lactate
a 3-carbon compound produced from pyruvate during anaerobic metabolism
Cori Cycle
the path from muscle glycogen to glucose to pyruvate to lactate (which travels to the lvier) to glucose (which can travel back to the muscle) to glycogen; named after the scientist who elucidated this pathway
Fatty Acid Oxidation
the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids to acetyle CoA; also called beta oxidation
Beta oxidation
same as Fatty Acid Oxidation
Keto Acid
an organic acid that contains a carbonyl group (C=O)
Ammonia
a compound with the chemical formula NH3; produced during the deamination of amino acids
Transamination
the transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to a keto acid, producing a new nonessential amino acid and a new keto acid
Urea
the principle nitrogen-excretion product of protein metabolism, two ammonia fragments are combines with carbon dioxide to form urea
Oxaloacetate
a carbohydrate intermediate of the TCA cycle
What is the net ATP produced from glycolysis?
2 ATP
What is glucose converted to in aerobic glycolysis?
1 Glucose generates 2 Pyruvate and 2 ATP
What is glucose converted to in anaerobic glycolysis?
1 Glucose generates 2 Lactate and 2 ATP
Where does the conversion of pyruvate to Acetyle CoA occur?
Mitochrondria
Pyruvate may follow several reversible path, but which path is not reversible?
Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
What is the end result of glucose?
Glucose yields 2 pyruvate which yield 2 CO2 and 2 Acetyl CoA
What anabolic reaction nets glycogen?
Glucose + Glucose
What anabolic reaction nets Triglycerides?
Glycerol + Fatty Acids
What anabolic reaction nets Protein?
Amino acids + Amino acids
What catabolic reaction starts with glycogen?
glucose + ATP
What catabolic reaction starts with triglycerides?
glycertol + ATP and Fatty Acids + ATP
What catabolic reaction starts with protein?
amino acids + ATP
With each turn of the Kreb's Cycle, what is the result?
2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 and 1 Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) are produced each turn of the cycle
What is another name for the Kreb's Cycle?
TCA cycle or Citric Acid Cycle
What compound starts the TCA cycle?
oxaloacetate
What is oxaloacetate primarily made of?
pyruvate
Where is the primary site of ATP synthesis?
Electron Transport Chain
How many ATP are produced from 1 molecule of glucose through the electron transport chain?
32 ATP
What are the results of the electron transport chain?
O2 is consumed, H2O and CO2 are produced and energy is captured in ATP
What is the source of pyruvate?
Glucose
What are 2 causes of ketogenesis?
low carbohydrate intake or insufficient insulin
What is the product of incomplete fatty acid oxidation?
ketones
Acetyl CoA can be derived from what?
pruvate, fatty acids, or amino acids (via ketogenic)
Pyruvate can be derived from what?
Glucose, Lactate, or Amino Acids (glucogenic)
What is the end result of the amino group during deamination?
converted to urea and excreted
Glucogenic
Amino Acids that can be used to produce glucose
Ketogenic
Amino Acids that can be used to produce acetyl CoA
Explain urea excretion from amino acids to urine
The liver contains all the enzymes necessary to convert amino acids to ammonia +CO2 to form urea. Urea is excreted through the kidneys in the urine.
What compound is at the center of all metabolism pathways?
Acetyl CoA
Name the 2 pathways alcohol metabolism may take
Alcohol dehydrogenase pathway or MEOS pathway
When consumption of alcohol is low, which metabolism pathway is used?
alcohol dehydrogenase pathway
When consumption of alcohol is high, which metabolism pathway is used?
MEOS
What are the steps of the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway?
Ethanol to acetaldehyde to acetate to Acetyl CoA
What does MEOS stand for?
Microsomal Ethanol Oxidizing System
Where does MEOS take place?
in the cytosol of the cell
What can Acetyl CoA be used to make?
Fatty Acid or broke down into CO2 and H2O
Does the MEOS pathway use or create ATP?
uses ATP