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80 Cards in this Set

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Proteins
Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms, arranged into amino acids linked in a chain. Some amino acids also contain sulfur atoms.
Amino Acids
Building blocks of proteins
What is the structure of a typical amino acid?
Each contains an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group. all attached to a central carbon atom.
Nonessential Amino Acids
Amino acids that the body can synthesize
Essential Amino Acids
Amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs
Conditionally essential amino acids
an amino acid that is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it
Peptide bond
a bond that connects the acid end of one amino acid to the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain
Dipeptide
two amino acids bonded together
Tripeptide
three amino acids bonded together
Polypeptide
many (ten or mor) amino acids bonded together
Hemoglobin
the globular protein of the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells throughout the body
Denaturation
the change in a protein's shape and consequent loss of its function brought about by heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents
Pepsin
a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein
Pepsinogen
the inactive form of pepsin that is activated by hydrochloric acid in the stomach
Proteases
enzymes that hydrolyze protein
Peptidase
a digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds
Proteomics
the study of the body's proteins
transcription
the process of messenger RNA being made from a template of DNA
Translation
the process of messenger RNA directing the sequence of amino acids and synthesis of proteins
Sickle-cell anemia
a hereditary form of anemia characterized by abnormal sickle- or crescent-shaped red blood cells. These cells interfere with oxygen transport and blood flow.
What are symptoms of sickle-cell anemia precipitated by?
dehydration and insufficient oxygen (as may occur at high altitudes)
What are the symptoms of sickle-cell anemia?
hemolytic anemia (red blood cells burst), fever, and severe pain in the joints and abdomen
Gene expression
the process by which a cell converts the genetic code into RNA and protein
Matrix
the basic substance that gives form to a developing structure, in the body, the formative cells from which teeth and bones grow
Collagen
the protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, ligaments, and the foundations of bones and teeth are made
Enzymes
proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed int he process; protein catalysts
Fluid Balance
Maintenance of the proper types and amounts of fluids in each compartment of the body fluids
Edema
the swelling of body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in the interstitial spaces; seen in protein deficiency (among other conditions)
Acids
compounds that relase hydrogen ions in a solution
Bases
compounds that accept hydrogen ions in a solution
Acidosis
above-normal acidity in the blood and body fluids
Alkalosis
above-normal alkalinity (base) in the blood and body fluids
Antigens
substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system. A bacterium, a virus, a toxin, and a protein in food that cause allergy are all examples of these.
Antibodies
large proteins of the blood and body fluids, produced by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules (usually proteins called antigens). They combine with and inactive the foreign invaders, thus protecting the body.
Immunity
the body's ability to defend itself against diseases
Protein Turnover
the degradation and synthesis of protein
Amino Acid Pool
the supply of amino acids derived from either food proteins or body proteins that collect in the cells and circulating blood and stand ready to be incorporated in proteins and other compounds or used for energy
Nitrogen Balance
the amount of nitrogen consumed (N in) as compared with the amount of nitrogen excreted (N out) in a given period of time
Neurotransmitters
chemicals that are released at the end of a nerve cell when a nerve impulse arrives there. They diffuse across the gap to the next cell and alter the membrane of that second cell to either inhibit or excite it.
Deamination
removal of the amino (NH3) group from a compound such as an amino acid
High Quality Proteins
dietary proteins containing all the essential amino acids in relatively the same amounts that human being require. They may also contain nonessential amino acids.
Protein Digestibility
a measure of the amount of amino acids absorbed from a given protein intak
Limiting Amino Acid
the essential amino acid found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed fro protein synthesis in the body.
What 4 amino acids are most likely to be limiting?
Lysine, Methionine, Threonine, Trytophan
Reference Protein
A standard against which to measure the quality of other proteins
Complementary Proteins
two or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other
Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
a deficiency of protein, energy, or both, including kwashiorkor, marasmus, and instances in which they overlap
What is another name for Protein-kcalorie Malnutrition
Protein-Energy Malnutrition
Acute PEM
Protein-energy malnutrition caused by recent severe food restriction; characterize in children by thinness for height (wasting)
Chronic PEM
protein-energy malnutrition caused by long-term food deprivation; characterize in children by short height for age (stunting)
Marasmus
a form of PEM that results from a severe deprivation, or impaired absorption, of energy, protein, vitamins,and minerals
Kwahiorkor
a form of PEM that results either from inadequate protein intake or, more commonly, from infections.
Dysentery
an infection of the digestive tract that causes diarrhea
Whey protein
a by-product of cheese production; falsely promoted as increasing muscle mass. It is the water part of milk that separates from the curds.
Branched-chain Amino Acids
the essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are present in large amounts in skeletal muscle tissues; falsely promoted as fuel for exercising muscles.
Chromosomes
structures within the nucleus of a cell made of DNA and associated proteins. Human beings have 46, in 23 pairs. Each one has many genes.
DNA
the double helix molecules of which genes are made
Epigenetics
the study of heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the DNA sequence
Gene Expression
the process by which a cell converts the genetic code into RNA and protein
Genes
sections of chromosomes that contain the instructions needed to make one or more proteins
Genetics
the study of genes and inheritance
Genomics
the study of all the genes in an organism and their interactions with environmental factors
Human Genome
the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a person's cells
Microarray technology
Research tools that analyze the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously and search for particular gene changes associated with a disease
Mutation
a permanent change in the DNA that can be inherited
Nucleotide Bases
the nitrogen-containing building blocks of DNA and RNA - cytosine (C), thymine (T), uracil (U), guanine (G), and adenine (A). In DNA the base pairs are A-T and C-G and in RNA the base pairs are A-U and C-G
Nucleotides
the subunits of DNA and RNA molecules, composed of a phosphate group, a 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose for DNA and ribose for RNA), and a nitrogen-containing base.
Nutritional Genomics
the science of how food (and its components) interacts with the genome.
Phenylketonuria
an inherited disorder characterize by failure to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine
RNA
a compound similar to DNA, but it is a single strand with a ribose sugar instead of a deoxyribose sugar and uracil instead of thymine as one of its bases
How many essential amino acids are there for humans?
9
Name the 9 essential amino acids.
Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Trytophan, Valine
How many common amino acids are there?
20
How are proteins formed?
Chemically speaking, proteins are more complex than carbohydrates or lipids, being made of some 20 different amino acids. Cells link amino acids together in a series of condensation reactions to form peptide bonds which create proteins. The distinctive sequence of amino acids in each protein determines its unique shape and function.
What are the primary functions of protein in the body?
1) Building materials for growth and maintenance
2) Enzymes
3) Hormones (not all are protein, some are made from cholesterol)
4) Regulators of Fluid Balance
5) Acid-Base regulators
6) Transporters
7) Antibodies
8) A Source of Energy and Glucose
What is the current RDA for protein?
0.8 g/kg/day
and
10-35% of energy intake
When will a positive nitrogen occur?
when the body synthesizes more than it degrades - growing infants, children, adolescents, pregnant women, and people recovering from protein deficiency or illness
When will a negative nitrogen occur?
the body degrades more than it synthesizes and loses protein - people who are starving or suffering other severe stresses such as burns, injuries, infections, and fever
Name some high-quality protein foods
foods derived from animals - meat, fish, poultry, cheese, eggs, yogurt, and milk
Soy protein
Name some low-quality protein foods
Corn protein and some other plant proteins