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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
pathology
study of disease
etiology
stody of the cause of a disease
pathogenesis
development of disease
infection
colonization of the body by pathogens
disease
an abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
transient microbiota
may be present for days weeks or months
normal microbiota
permanently colonize the host
normal microbiota located
nose throat eyes mouth skin LGI urinary and reproductive sys
normal microbiota protect host by
occupy niches that pathogens might occupy
producing acids
producing bacteriocins
microbial antagonism
is a competition b/w microbes
probiotic
live microbes applied to or ingested into body, intended to exert a beneficial effect
symbiosis
relationship b/w normal microbiota and host
commensalism
one organism benefits, other is unaffected
mutualism
both organisms benefit
parasitism
one organism benefits at the expense of the other
opportunistic pathogen
ordinarily do not cause disease in their normal habitat in a healthy person but may do so in a different environment
koch's postulates
used to prove cause of infectious disease
1. same pathogen present in every case
2. isolated and grown in pure culture
3. cause disease when inoculated into healthy animal
4. pathogen isolated from incoulated animal and shown to be original pathogen
Koch's exceptions
HIV
virus
uncurable pathogens
ethical considerations
diseases caused by 1+ pathogen
pathogens ignored as potential causes of disease
pathogens that cause disease in humans only
pathogens that cause several disease conditions
symptom
chang ein body function that is felt by pt as a result of disease
sign
change in body that can be measured or observed as result of disease
syndrome
specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
communicable disease
disease that is spread from one host to another
contagious disease
disease that is easily spread from one host to another
non-communicable disease
disease that is not transmitted from one host to another
incidence
fraction of population that contracts a disease during a specific time
prevalence
fraction of population having a specific disease at a given time
sporadic disease
disease that occurs occasionally in a population
endemic disease
disease constantly present in a population
epidemic disease
disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
pandemic disease
worldwide epidemic
herd immunity
immunity in most of a population
acute disease
symptoms develop rapidly
chronic disease
disease develops slowly
sub-acute disease
symptoms b/w acute and chronic
latent disease
disease w periods of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive
local infection
pathogens are limited to small area of body
systemic infection
infection throughout the body
focal infection
systemic infection that began as a local infection
sepsis
toxic infammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins from focus of infection
bacteremia
bacteria in blood
septicemia
growth of bacteria in blood
toxemia
toxins in blood
viremia
viruses in blood
primary infection
acute infection that cuses initial illness
secondary infection
opportunistic infection after a primary infection
subclinical disease
no noticable signs or symptoms
predisposing factors to disease
short urethra in females
inherited traits
climate/weather
fatigue
age
lifestyle
chemotherapy
stress
occupation
stages of disease
incubation period
prodromal period
period of illness
period of decline
period of convalescence
incubation period
period b/w initial infection and first appearance of signs or symptoms
prodromal period
early mild symptoms of some illnesses
ache and malaise
period of illness
disease most severe
overt signs/symptoms
wbc count low/high
pt dies if not overcome
period of decline
signs and symptoms subside
vulnerable to secondary infections
period of convalescence
regain strength and return to pre-disease state
can spread disease
reservoir of infection
animal
human carrier
non-living
transmission of disease
contact
vehicle
vector
contact
spread of agent of disease by direct, indirect or droplet transmission
direct contact
requires close association b/w infected and susceptible host
hard to determine
indirect contact
spread by fomites, tissues, towels, equipment
droplet
airborne droplets
travel short distances
vehicle
transmission of disease agent via inanimate water, food, air, blood, fluid
vector
animals that cary pathogens from one host to another
arthropods most common: fleas, ticks, mosquitoes
mechanical transmission by vector
arthropod carries pathogen on feet
passive
biological transmission
pathogen reproduces in vector
active process:
bites infected animal and ingests blood
pathogen reproduced in vector
increase #
defecate while biting host & parasite enters wound
nosocomial infection
acquired at hospital
5-15% pts
direct contact nosocomial infection
hospital staff - patient
patient - patient
indirect contact nosocomial infection
ventilation sys
fomites
portals of entry
skin, mucous membranes, placenta, parenteral route (break in skin/puncture)
morbidity
incidence of specific notifiable disease
mortality
death from notifiable disease
morbidity rate
number of people affected in relation to the total population in a given period of time
mortality rate
number of deaths from disease in relation to the population in a given time
compromised host
one whose resistance to infection is impaired by disease, therapy or burns, broken skin or syppressed immune system
movement of pathogen out of host
ear wax
blood
flakes of skin
feces
semen /lubricating secretions
tears
snot
saliva, sputum
breast milk, secretions
vaginal secretions and blood
urine