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94 Cards in this Set

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M224 60mm Mortar Weight in
How many mortars make up a mortar section?
M224 60mm mortar can be fired either by (2) or through the use of (a):
1. drop fire mode (conventional method)
2. trigger fire mode(conventional or hand-held method).
a. direction center (FDC).
A lightweight auxiliary base plate is used in the M224 60mm mortar when:
firing the mortar in the hand-held mode
M252 81mm Mortar range:
4500m to 5700m depending on the munition
A blast attenuation device (BAD) is attached to the M252 81mm Mortar muzzle of the cannon assembly to:
reduce the blast effects on the mortar crew.
M252 81mm Mortar weight:
35 lbs
(HE) High explosive
60mm range
81mm range
60mm range= 3500 meters
81mm range= 5700 meters
Mortar Capabilities (5):
1. High volume of fire
2. Highly responsive asset
3. Light, mobile, and flexible
4. Fires from and into defilade
5. CO’s “hip pocket artillery”
Mortar Limitations (3):
1. Long time of flight
2. Ammunition consumption
3. Multiple displacements
M252 81mm Mortar
__ Tubes = Platoon
__ Tubes = Section
8 Tubes
4 Tubes
M198 155mm Towed Howitzer weight:
15,800 pounds
M198 155mm Towed Howitzer range w/RAP:
18,100 meters
30,100 meters with RAP
M198 155mm Towed Howitzer Maximum rate of fire:
4 rounds per minute for first 3 minutes
M198 155mm Towed Howitzer Sustained rate of fire:
Maximum rate followed by 2 rounds per minute thereafter
High volume of fire (a) 60mm (b) 81mm
(a) maximum (30 rds/min) and sustained (20 rds/min
(b)maximum (30 rds/min) and 15 rds/min
Highly responsive asset
The location of the mortar systems closer to the supporting units equates to faster response time.
Fires from and into defilade
Mortars can be positioned on the ground to take advantage
of protection by terrain; for example, behind a hill mass or in a dry riverbed. Conversely, mortars’ inherent high angle fire capability allows them to engage targets located in defilade positions.
CO’s “hip pocket artillery”
The 60mm and 81mm mortar are organic assets within the Marine rifle battalion thus increasing their knowledge of the maneuver unit’s experience and capabilities due to habitual working relationships.
Mortar Limitations
Long time of flight
Ammunition consumption
Multiple displacements
Long time of flight
The high angle nature of fire for the mortar contributes to their longer time of flight for the round to reach the target area. This also makes the mortar system more susceptible to direction-finding radar.
Ammunition consumption
Due to the maximum and sustained rates of fire, mortars expend more ammunition. A smaller effective casualty radius requires both systems to use a greater number of rounds to accomplish the same mission as compared to other fire support systems.
Multiple displacements
The shorter range of both mortar systems require the tubes to move closer to the engagement areas whenever maneuver units reach beyond the range of their mortars. During their movement, mortars have a limited capability to employ their systems to supporting units.
In the weapons platoon of an infantry rifle company are:
three 60mm mortar systems
the weapons company of the infantry battalion are:
eight 81mm mortar systems.
Artillery conducts three key tasks to accomplish their mission:
1 To provide close and continuous fire support to the maneuver units. Fire support is provided day or night and in all weather conditions.
2 Artillery gives depth to the battlefield. Weapons with ranges of 20+ kilometers have the ability to
• Attack reserves and assembly areas.
• Interdict supply lines.
• Disrupt the enemy’s command and control facilities.
3 Deliver counter fire within the range of our weapon systems to ensure freedom of movement for ground forces.
M198 155mm Towed Howitzer Weight
15,800 pounds
M198 155mm Towed Howitzer Range
18,100 meters
30,100 meters with RAP
M198 155mm Towed Howitzer Maximum rate of fire
4 rounds per minute for first 3 minutes
M198 155mm Towed Howitzer Sustained rate of fire
Maximum rate followed by 2 rounds per minute thereafter
XM777 155mm Towed Howitzer weight
Roughly 10,000 pounds
XM777 155mm Towed Howitzer Range
18,100 meters
30,100 meters with RAP
XM777 155mm Towed Howitzer Maximum rate of fire
XM777 155mm Towed Howitzer Sustained rate of fire
High explosive, rocket-assisted projectile
• High fragmentation steel cases filled with TNT or
Composition B
• An integral rocket motor increases the range of the
• Accuracy is reduced at longer ranges due to the
uneven burn of the rocket motor
• Will produce more fragmentation over a large area than the standard HE projectile
White phosphorous
• Burster-type projectile filled with WP
• On detonation WP is expelled over a limited area
• WP is used for:
o Marking
o Screening
o Obscuring
o Incendiary effects
• Useful against:
o Vehicles
o POL storage areas
M825 felt wedge WP
• Provides 5 to 15 minutes of smoke
• Uses 116 felt wedges impregnated with WP to
facilitate rapid dissemination
• Mechanical time fuze activates a charge causing base
ejection and ignition of the WP felt-pad wedge in a
large area
• Is extremely effective for:
o Screening
o Obscuring
• Not used for Marking
Weapons with ranges of 20+ kilometers have the ability to
• Attack reserves and assembly areas.
• Interdict supply lines.
• Disrupt the enemy’s command and control facilities.
Illumination shell (illum)
• On activation of the fuze, the canister/parachute assembly is expelled from the base of the projectile
• Illumination suspends from a parachute providing up to 1,000,000 (155mm) candlepower of battlefield illumination
• One illumination round can illuminate one grid square for 2 minutes
Improved conventional munitions (ICM)
• Is a base ejecting type projectile that contains 88 dual purpose armor defeating and antipersonnel grenades
• Upon activation of the fuze, these grenades are
ejected over the target area
• When the projectile is detonated, these high explosive shaped charge grenades suspended from ribbon
streamers are expelled.
• On impact, a shape-charge jet is expelled downward
through the body of each grenade while the rest of the
grenade bursts outward producing fragmentation
• Jet is capable of penetrating approximately 2.75
inches of rolled homogenous armor
• Is effective against vehicles such as:
o Armored personnel carriers
o Trucks
• Little effect against hard material targets (bunkers)
• Effects pattern is generally uniform and circular in shape
Family of scatterable mines(FASCAM)
• Refers to expelling charge projectiles used to deliver
antitank or antipersonnel mines
• Includes:
o Area denial artillery munitions (ADAM)
o Remote anti-armor mine system (RAAMS)
Shell- The following describes the eight artillery shells.
1 High explosive (HE)
2 High explosive, rocket-assisted projectile (RAP)
3 White phosphorous
4 M825 felt wedge WP
5 Illumination shell
6 Cannon launched guided
projectile (CLGP or copperhead)
7 Improved conventional
munitions (ICM)
8 Family of scatterable
mines (FASCAM)
Fuze- The following describes the four types of artillery fuzes.
1 Point detonating
2 Delay
3 Variable time (VT)
4 Time
Time used for 4:
o M825
o Illumination
Artillery Battalion
six howitzers in each battery; 18 howitzers in the battalion
Each FO team consists of:
An FO (0802 lieutenant)
A scout observer (0861)
One or two radio operators (0621)
Guided Missile Cruisers
o Multi-mission surface combatants.
o Capable of supporting carrier battle groups, amphibious forces, or
operating independently.
o Armed with two 5”/54 gun mounts to support the landing force.
o Carrier battle groups.
o Surface action groups.
o Amphibious groups.
o Replenishment groups.
MK-45 5”/54.
The MK-45 is a 54-caliber, lightweight gun that provides surface combatants accurate naval gunfire against
o Fast, highly maneuverable surface targets
o Air threats
o Shore targets during amphibious operations
MK-45 5”/54
Minimum range
Maximum range
Maximum rate of fire Sustained rate of fire
910 meters
23,000 meters
40 rounds/minute
20 rounds/minute
NSFS projectiles include:
o HE.
o WP.
o Illumination.
Aircraft carry four general categories of ordnance:
• Bombs
• Missiles
• Rockets
• Guns
MK-80 Series Bombs
Dumb bombs are not precision guided munitions and are only influenced by gravity and wind
once the ordinance is eleased. About 45 to 50 percent of bomb weight is
General-purpose (GP) bombs use
all three weapon-kill
• Heat (Flame and/or temperature)
• Blast (Concussion)
• Fragmentation (Projectile)
Mk-80 Series Bomb consists of 3:
• Mk-82 = 500lb bomb
• Mk-83 = 1000lb bomb
• Mk-84 = 2000lb bomb
The types of fuzes for MK-80 series bombs are 2:
• Mechanical, which are very reliable
• Electrical, which offer a wide variety of features and pilot selectable
The three functioning modes are:
• Delay.
• Instantaneous.
• Proximity.
Laser-Guided Bombs (LGBs) combine
GP and penetration warheads with guidance packages
and control fin assemblies to provide a free-fall weapon capable of limited
maneuverability after release from the delivering platform.
The guidance package consists of
a laser spot seeker that identifies laser energy and uses it to guide to the point of impact.
Guided Bomb Units (GBUs)
MK-82, 83, or 84
A laser spot can be provided
• By the delivering platform (self-lazing)
• From an accompanying aircraft (buddy lazing)
• By a ground-based laser system
Joint Direct Attack Munitions
Mk-82/83/84 bomb
Filled with 75 gallons of
fuel/gel mixture and weighs 520 lbs.
The typical pattern is elliptical in shape about 215 ft long and 75 ft wide.
Fuel Air Explosive
• Against personnel, light material targets, mines, and booby traps
• For clearing landing zones
Cluster Bomb Units
These munitions include antipersonnel, anti-material, and antitank weapons. The
CBU systems provide high kill or damage probability against area, moving, and point targets.
The Rockeye can be employed from all US tactical jets.
MK-20 Rockeye
consists of a dispenser, a mechanical time fuse that opens the dispenser at a selected time, and 247 MK-118 bomblets. The MK-118 has a small, shaped-charge warhead that can penetrate six inches of armor plate.
CBU-87 (CEM)
Combined Effects Munitions
Has improved effects in incendiary, fragmentation,
and armor piercing capabilities. It consists of 202 bomblets in each container.
Air To Surface Guided Missiles
AGM-65 Maverick Missile
AGM-114 Hellfire Missile
BGM-71 TOW Missile
Maverick Missile
The Maverick is a
LASER guided missile. Ranges for this missile can exceed 12NM. It has a 125-pound shaped-charge warhead designed to kill armor or other point targets. The Maverick is used by the F/A-18 and AV-8.
Hellfire Missile
Hellfire is a solid propellant, laser-guided, anti-armor missile that utilizes multiple warheads.The
engagement range for the AGM-114 is 500-8000m.
BGM-71 TOW Missile
Stands for tube-launched, optically-tracked, wire-guided missile. The only aircraft that can fire the TOW missile is the AH-1W.
The engagement range for the BGM-71 is 500-3750m.
2.75 Inch “Mighty Mouse” Rockets
High explosive (HE), white phosphorous (WP), and illumination are commonly used. The 2.75-inch rockets can also be fitted with a flechette warhead. The flechette warhead expels 2200 60-grain “nails” that cover an 80m x 80m area. The 2.75-inch HE rockets have an effective casualty radius (ECR) of 35m, similar to that of an 81mm mortar.
5-Inch “Zuni” Rockets
5-inch rockets are primarily fitted with a HE warhead.
Zuni rockets have an ECR of 50m, similar to that of a 155mm artillery round.
1 GAU-12 25mm
2 M61A1 “Vulcan” Cannon
3 M197 20mm Turret System
4 GAU-16 50 CAL
5 GAU-17 “Minigun”
6 M240E
GAU-12 25mm
Six-barrel gun pod is mounted on the centerline of the AV-8B Harrier. It has a 300 round capacity with a lead computing optical sight system (LCOSS) gunsight.
M61A1 “Vulcan” Cannon
Utilized by F/A-18 aircraft is a 6-barreled weapon, with
selectable rates of fire of either 4000 or 6000 rounds per minute. The F/A-
18 has a capacity of 578 rounds of 20mm linkless ammunition. The gun's
rate of fire, essentially 100 rounds per second, gives the pilot a shot density that will enable a "kill" when fired in one-second bursts.
M197 20mm Turret System
Utilized by the AH-1W aircraft is a lightweight, three-barrel Gatling type gun. The M-197 is mated to an ammunition storage and handling system that has a capacity of 750 rounds of linked ammunition. The M197 automatic gun has a firing rate of 650 rpm. Utilizing the PGU-28 semi-armor piercing, high-explosive incendiary (SAPHEI) round, the gun is highly effective against both lightly armored and soft targets.
GAU-16 50 CAL
This gun can be loaded in the door of assault support helicopters such as the UH-1N. It provides medium-range suppressive fire at a cyclic rate of 750-850 rpm. The gun can use either open iron sights or a laser pointer sight for use with Night Vision Goggles (NVG).
GAU-17 “Minigun”
The GAU-17/A utilized on the UH-1N is a crew served, 6 barreled weapon, with a rate of fire of either 2000 or 4000 rounds per minute. In the UH-1N DAS configuration, the gun can be fixed forward and remotely fired by the pilot. The ammunition storage system has a capacity of 4000 rounds of linked 7.62mm percussion primed ammunition.
The M240E is simply an M240G medium machinegun modified to be fired from the door of the UH-1N. It fires 200 rpm at the rapid rate and a normal load out of 1000 rounds of 7.62mm.
AH-1W Supercobra maximum speed:
Time on station:
130 to 150 knots fully loaded
Take-off to landing generally 1 + 45
AH-1W Supercobra Night Operations:
The introduction of the night targeting system (NTS) aircraft enhances this capability. The NTS brings autonomous laser operations, FLIR, and laser range-finding to the battlefield. In addition, an extremely accurate GPS/INS system ties into the NTS to allow for 10-digit grid accuracy for targets.
AH-1W Supercobra Ordnance 5:
• Can carry 750 rounds of 20mm ammunition
• Fires 650 rounds a minute
• Has 2.75” rockets in 7-shot and 19-shot pods
• Has 5.0” rockets in 4-shot pods
• Can carry up to four Hellfire or TOW on either outside station
AV-8B Harrier
• Maximum speed is:
• Normal ordnance delivery speed is:
• Time on station after 30-minute transit is:
550 knots at sea level
420 to 480 knots
20 to 40 minutes
AV-8B Harrier Night Operations:
LITENING pod brings autonomous laser operations, FLIR, laser range-finding, and IR pointer to the battlefield. In addition, an extremely accurate GPS/INS system ties into the LITENING pod to allow for 10-digit grid accuracy for targets.
AV-8B Harrier Ordnance Loads and Profiles:
If aircraft requires vertical takeoff (LHA/LHD), ordnance loads are reduced.
F/A-18 Hornet
• Maximum speed is:
• Normal ordnance delivery speed is:
• Time on station after 30-minute transit is:
550 knots at sea level
480 to 540 knots
30 to 55 minutes
F/A-18 Hornet Night Operations
The LITENING pod brings autonomous laser operations, FLIR, laser range-finding, and IR pointer to the battlefield. In addition, an extremely accurate GPS/INS system ties into the LITENING pod to allow for 10-digit grid accuracy for targets.
F/A-18 Hornet Ordnance Loads and Profiles
Four to eight 1000-pound bombs will be normal air-to-ground ordnance with either one or two external fuel tanks
F/A-18 Air-to-Ground Weapons
• 20mm cannon – 578 rounds
• Cluster bombs
o Rockeye (antipersonnel, antitank)
• MK-82, 83, 84 (500, 1000, 2000 pound)
o General purpose bombs
• GBU-12, 16, 10 (500, 1000, 2000 pound)
o Laser guided variants of MK-80 series bombs
• 2.75” rockets primarily used for FAC(A) missions with WP rounds
• 5” rockets
• AGM-65 Maverick (laser guided antitank missile),
• MK-77 Napalm
• GBU-38, 31, 32 (JDAM) (500, 1000, 2000 pound)
o GPS-guided variants of Mk-80 series bombs
AV-8B Air-to-ground:
Series/LGBs/JDAM, 2.75"/5" rockets, MK-20,
CBU-/78, MK-77, Maverick
AH-1 Payload
F/A-18 A/C and F/A-18D
Crew 1 and 2, respectively
Performance • Maximum level speed at sea level: 550 KIAS
• Typical delivery speed: 500 KIAS
• Time on station after 30-minute transit: 40 to 45 minutes
Payload • 13,700 lbs
• Air-to-ground: MK-80 Series/LGBs/JDAM, 2.75"/5" rockets, MK-20,
CBU-78, MK-77, Maverick,
• NVG1
• Laser Spot Tracker
• Laser (Self) Designator
Comm/Navigation • Two UHF (AM/FM)
• Two VHF (AM/FM)
• Hellfire
• 2.7"/5" Rockets
• 20mm turret gun
UH-1 Payload
• 1,400 to 1,800 pounds
• 6 to 13 pax, 6 litters
• 7.62mm (GAU-17, M240E)
• .50 caliber guns (GAU-16)
• 2.75" rockets