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93 Cards in this Set

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glycolysis
an energy pathway inside the cell where glucose is broken down into pyruvate or lactate.
interval training
when work and rest periods are spaced correctly. allows an athlete to complete a high volume of very high intensity work.
mechano-receptors
in joints and within muscles
provides information about the initiation and continuation of movement.
systole
portion of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles are in contraction to pump blood.
proprioceptors
receptors that provide information about the position and movement of the body, found in joints, muscles and canals of the ears.
oxidative phosphorylation
a process in the mitochondria of a cell where ATP is formed.
homeostasis
the maintenance of a constant internal environment.
relative strength
the ability of an athlete to move or accelerate their own body mass.
glycolytic capacity training
to overload to anaerobic glycolytic ssystem.
repeated bouts of maximum intensity exercise causing a lactate stacking effect.
relative strength programme
improves motor unit activation, firing frequency, and synchronisation. Results in improved coordination and force.
power
the rate of work, work per unit of time
P = W/T
aerobic
with oxygen
ATP-PC system
a high energy short term system involving muscle stores of ATP and phosphocreatine. Also the regeneration of ATP from ADP
IAT
individual anaerobic threshold
glycogen
a glucose molecule that is broken down by the cells and stored as a carbohydrate.
basal metabolic rate
the body's basic rate of metabolism or function.
ADP
adenosine diphosphate
a molecule that combines with a phosphate to create ATP
ATPase
an enzyme capable of breaking down ATP
PH
a measure of the acidity of a solution or blood.
the rest principle
to optimise fitness improvements, training sessions must be interspersed with rest sessions to allow the body time to recover and adapt to increasing exercise loads.
the ceiling principle
as fitness levels increase, the relative and absolute improvements in fitness will decrease, even with a progressive overload.
the maintenance principle
detraining may be avoided by maintaining the intensity and duration of exercise sessions while decreasing the frequency by 2/3
glucose
a simple sugar that is transposed via the blood and metabolized by tissues.
isotonic
contraction where the muscle shortens and the segment moves (the joint angle changes)
Reversibility principle
in the absence of training, athlete's performance and fitness levels will decrease.
RPE
rating of perceived exertion
glycogenolysis
the breakdown of glycogen into glucose.
the specificity principle
training should be specific to the movements, muscles, and energy systems of the sport being trained for.
absolute strength
the ability of anthlete to move an external load
isokinetic
action where the rate/speed of movement is constant even through maximal force exerted.
isometric
contraction in which the muscle develops tension but remains the same length (joint angle does not change)
fartlek training
an adaption aof interval and continuous training. uses running at fast and slow speeds on hilly anf flat surfaces.
repitition
the number of times an exercise is repeated in a set.
lactic acid
an end product of glucose breakdown in the glycolytic pathway formed in conditions with inadequete oxygen.
autonomic nervous system
part of the nervous system that supplies the body organs (involuntary)
ATP
adenosine triphosphate
adenosine molecule + 3 phosphate bonds
(essential for energy)
absolute VO2
the amount of oxygen consumed over a given period of time measured in litres per minute.
local endurance
a measure of a person's ability to perform a specific task.
hypertrophy
an increase in cell size.
kreb's cycle
energy pathway where energy is transferred from carbohydrates, fats and proteins to NAD and FAD for subsequent production of ATP in the electron transport chain.
circuit training
provides general conditioning to improve body composition, muscular strength and endurance and cardiovascular fitness. a weight is lifted at 40-55% of 1rm as many times as possible in a certain time then moves on to the next station after a short rest.
general endurance
a measure of a person's ability to sustain a high level of work output.
tidal volume
the volume of air in each breath.
ergogenic aid
a substance or procedure that improves performance.
8 components of fitness
endurance (local and general)
strength (local, general, relative, absolute)
speed
power
flexibility
coordination and balance
agility
body composition
rest interval
the time period between bouts of exercise in an interval training programme.
endurance
the ability to withstand stress over a long period of time.
mitochondria
an organelle in the cell that is responsible for the production of ATP when there is oxygen present.
continuous training
a steady state prolonged exercise at moderate to high aerobic intensity.
suitable for beginners or those with heart problems.
VO2 Max
Maximal Oxygen Uptake
the greatest rate of oxygen consumption measures during severe high intensity exercise. It is dependant on maximal cardiac output and maximal oxygen concentration difference between the veins and the arteries.
aerobic glycolytic system
energy at a slower rate for long term exercise. With oxygen. Glycogen, lipids and proteins are used as substrates.
gluconeougenisis
part of the anaerobic glycolysis process.
excess pyruvate and lactate travel to the liver to be converted back to glucose. Which is further converted to glycogen for storage.
osteoporosis
a decrease in bone density due to a loss of cortical bone. Common in older women and implicated fractures. Estrogen, calcium and exercise all affect the process of this condition.
the F.I.T.T principle
an optimal training overload relies on the proper manipulation of the frequency, intensity, time and type of training.
general strength
whole body strength
muscular strength
the maximal amount of force that can be generated by a muscle or muscle group.
motor unit
a motor neuron and all the muscle fibres it innervates.
feed back
feed back from mechano receptors and chemo receptors detect movement and PH levels to help maintain homeostasis.
myoglobin
(red pigment)
a protein in muscle that can bind oxygen and release it when oxygen levels drop. Helps bring oxygen from the blood vessels to the cell and mitochondria.
myofibrils
the portion of muscle containing the contractile filaments called actin and myosin. This is what gives the muscle it's striated appearance.
karovnen method of estimating the intensity
calculates the target heart rate by using the athlete's resting heart rate, heart rate reserve,and specified percentages.
speed
the rate of performance, or the rate of execution of a movement.
feed forward control
anticipation of exercise results - even before exercise - in increases in the cardiorespiratory system.
fast twitch muscle fibres
fast glycolytic or type IIb fibres. characterized as having low oxidative capacity but high glycolytic capacity.
intermediate fibres
fast oxidative glycolytic or type IIa. These fibres are a mix between slow and fast twitch fibres.
coordination
the ability to accomplish tasks requiring the execution of more than one task simultaneously.
local strength
the strength of a specific muscle or muscle group.
chemo-receptors
found in muscle and in the blood stream.
Detects changes in muscle and blood PH
maximal power programme
improves motor unit activation, firing frequency and synchronisation with a small increase in muscle mass.
increases speed and strength.
diastole
(resting phase) the period of filling the heart with blood between contractions.
the overload principle
to improve a fitness component it must be overloaded. To elicit optimal adaptation and to prevent injury, overload must be individualised and progressive.
veno constriction
stiffening of veins allowing large quantities of blood to move into central circulation.
allows for an increase in venous return.
vasodilation
enlarging of arteries
stretch shortening cycle
when a muscle is rapidly stretched before performing a concentric contraction.
plyometric training
used for athletes involved in sports that involve explosive powerful movements.
anearobic
without oxygen
thermo-regulation
a rise in core temperature causes an increase in skin-blood-flow. Blood goes to the skin to be cooled then returned to the core to cool the core. If temperature continues to rise sweating is initiated to allow for greater cooling via evaporation.
anaerobic threshold
the level of oxygen consumption where there is a rapid increase in blood lactate concentration.
stroke volume
the amount of blood pumped into circulation each heart beat.
DOMS
delayed onset of muscle soreness. muscle soreness occurs 12 -24 hours after exercise.
sliding filament theory
a theory of muscle contraction describing the sliding of the thin (actin) filaments past the thick (myosin) filaments.
cardiac output
the amount of blood pumped by the heart into circulation per minute.
slow twitch fibres
muscle fibre type that contracts slowly and develops relatively low tension but displays great endurance to repeated stimulation.
Slow oxidative or type I
balance
the ability to maintain stability while performing movements.
flexibility
the range of motion permitted across a joint between 2 adjacent body segments.
the individualisation principle
training benefits are optimised when programmes are planned and if neccesary adjusted to meet athlete's individual needs and capabilities.
systolic blood pressure
the highest arterial pressure measure during a cardiac cycle.
diastolic blood pressure
the arterial blood pressure during the period of diastole.
agility
the ability to change direction while maintaining a fast pace.
ventilation
the movement of the air into or out of the lungs: external respiration.
body composition
a person's physical makeup in terms of height weight circumference muscular tone and fat deposits.
strength endurance programme
low intensity high reps
small increse in muscle mass and maximal strength and increased motor unit activation.
H+ hydrogen ion
a free hydrogen ion in a solution that results in a decrease in the PH of the solution.