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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
matter
an substance in the universe that has mass and occupies space
atoms
extremely small particles
electrons
orbiting colud of tiny subatomic particles
protons
positively charged particles
neutrons
particles with no charge
atomic number
different atoms are defined by the number of protons
element
any substance that cannot be broken down to any oher substance by ordinary means
atomic mass
equal to the sum of the masses of its protons and neutrons
orbitals
regions arond the nucleus of an atom with a high probability of containing an electron
neutral atoms
atoms with same number of protons and electrons are electricaly neutral, having no net charge
ions
atoms in which the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons
cation
an atom that has more protons than electrons has a net positive charge
anion
an atom has fewer protons than electrons carries a net negative charge
isotopes
atoms of a single element that possess different number of neutrons
radioactive isotopes
isotopes that are unstable and undergo radioactive decay, releasing energy
half-life
time it takes for one-half o fthe atoms in a sample to decay
energy levels
discrete level, or quantum , of energy that an electron in an atom possesses
oxidation
loss of an electron
reduction
gain of an electron
valence electrons
electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom
inert
nonreactive
octet rule
atoms tend to establish completely full outer energy levels
organic
compounds of carbon
molecule
group of atoms held together by energy in a stable association
compound
molecule containing atoms of more than one element
chemical bonds
join atoms in a molecule
ionic bonds
form when atoms with opposite electrical charges (ions) attract
ionic compound
electrically neutral
covalent bonds
form when two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
double bonds
satisfies octet rule by allowing two atoms to share two pairs of electrons
single bonds
only one electron pair is shared
triple bonds
three electron pairs shared
electronegativity
property of atomic nuclei that reers to the affinity of the nuclei for valence electrons
nonpolar
refers to bonds between atoms where electronegativity is nearly the same or is the same and the electrons are equally shared
polar covalent bonds
bonds with unequal distribution of charge?
hydrogen bonds
weak association formed with hydrogen in polar covalent bonds
cohesive
allows molecules to be attracted to one another
surface tension
tautness of the surface of a liquid
adhesion
attraction for other polar substances
specific heat
amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost by 1 gram of substance to change its temperature by 1 degree Celsisus
heat of vaporization
amount of energy required to change 1 gram of a substance from a liquid to a gas
hydration shell
"cloud" of water molecules surrounding a dissolved substance, such as sucrose or sodium and chlorine ions
hydrophobic
"water-fearing", describes nonpolar substances not soluble in water
hydrophilic
"water-loving", describes substances soluble in water; must be polar or charged (ions)
hydrophobic exclusion
tendency of nonpolar molecules to aggregate in water
mole
witht of a substance in grams that corresponds to the atomic masss of all atoms in a molecule of that substance
molar concentration
concentration expresses as moles of a substance in 1 liter of pure water
pH scale
conventient way to express hydrogen ion concentration of solution
pH
"partial hydrogen", negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration in solution; pH = -log [H+]
acid
any substance that dissociates in water to increase the concentration of H+ ions (and lower the pH)
base
substance that combines with H+ ions when dissolved in water, ad thus lowers the [H+]
buffer
substance that resists change in pH