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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pharmacology
the study or science of drugs
Drug
any chemical that affects the processes of living organism
Drug Interaction
Occurs when the action of one drug is altered by the action of another drug. It can increase or decrease it's action when combined.
Additive Effect
two drugs with similar actions are taken for a double effect
Antagonistic effect
one drug interfere's with the action of another
Incompatability
one drug is chemically incompatable with another drug causing deterioration when the 2 drugs are mixed in the same syringe or solution
Synergestic effect
combined effect of two drugs is greater than the sum of the effect of each drug when given alone

aspirin+codeine
Schedule 1 drug
has high potential for abuse, no current accepted medical use in US, has lack of accepted safety for use under med supervision
Schedule 2 drug
has high potential for abuse, currently accepted medical use. May lead to severe dependence
Morphine,Percodone,Demerol
Schedule 3 drug
Has potential for abuse but lower than sched. 1 and 2
Schedule 4 drug
Haslow potential for abuse. May lead to limited physical /psycho dependence. phenobarbital
Schedule 5 drug
low potential for abuse
Pharmaceutics
study of how various drug forms pharmokinetic and pharmacodynamic activities
Pharmacokinetics
the study of what the body does to the drug
Absorption,Distribution,Metabolism
Excreation
Pharmacodynamics
the study of what the drug does to the body
-the mechanism of drug actions in living tissue
Pharmacotherapeutics
the use of drugs and the clinical indications for drugs to prevent and treat disease
Absorption
the rate at which a drug leaves its site of administration and the extent to which absorpition occurs
Agonist
drugs that interact with the receptor to stimulate a response

exp tylenol for a fever
Antagonist
drugs that attach a receptor but dont stimulate a response

exp. BP med
Partial Agonists
Drugs that interact with a receptor but dont stimulate a response
ADME
Absorption
Distribution
Metabolism
Excretion
Enternal Route
Drug absorbed into the systemic circulation through oral or gastric mucosa, the sm intestine, or rectum

oral, Sublingual,Buccal, Rectal
First Pass Effect
The metabolism of a drug and its passage from the liver into circulation. A drug given via the oral route may be extensively metabolized by the liver before reaching systemic circulation (high first pass effect)

Same drug given IV bypasses liver preventing 1st pass effect and more drug reaches circulation
routes that bypass the liver
sublingual-transdermal-buccal-
vaginal-rectal-IM-IV-SubQ-
Inhalation- Intranasal
Parental Route
IV-IM-SubQ-Intradermal-
Intrathecal-Intraarticular
Intramuscular IM injection
90 degrees
Subcutaneous
45 degrees
Intradermal
15 degrees
Topical Route
Skin(including transdermal)
Eyes
Ears
Nose
Lungs (inhalation)
Vagina
Distribution
the transport of a drug in the body by the bloodstream to its site of action
Area's of rapid distribution
heart,liver,kidneys,brain
Area's of slow distribution
muscle,skin,fat
metabolism
the biologic transformation of a drug into an inactive metabolite, a more soluble compound, more potent metabolite
places in the body where drugs metabolize
Liver (main organ)
kidneys
lungs
plasma
intestinal mucosa
factors that decrease metabolism
cardo dysfunction
renal insufficiency
starvation
obstructive jaundice
slow
erthromycin therapy
factors that increase metabolism
fast acetyator

barbituarates

Rifampin therapy (TB treatment)
Delayed drug metabolism results in ...
accumulation of drugs

prolonged action of the effects of drugs
stimulating drug metabolism causes...
diminished pharmacologic effects
Excretion
The elimination of drugs from the body
kidney(main organ)
liver
bowel
half life
the time it takes for one half of the original amount of drug in the body to be removed
drug actions
the cellular processes involved in the drug and cell interaction
drug effects
the physiologic reaction of the body to the drug
onset
time it takes for the drug to elicit a theraputic response
peak
time it takes for a drug to reach its maximum theraputic response
duration
time a drug is sufficient to elicit theraputic response
types of drug therapies
acute
maintence
supplemental
palliative
supportive
prophylacic
Monitoring
partients condition
tolerance and dependence
interactions
sideeffects
therapeutic index
ratio between a drugs theraputic benefits and toxic effects
tolerance
a decreasing response to repetitive drug doses
dependence
a physiological or psychological need for a drug
drug interaction
the alteration of action of drug by other perscribed drugs
OTC drugs
herbal therapy
adverse drug events
all are preventable

medication errors that result in patient harm
adverse drug reactions
inherent, not preventable event occuring in the normal therapeutic use of a drug

any reaction that us unexpected undesired and occurs at doses normally used