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26 Cards in this Set

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Anton Mesmer (1734-1815)
- Was the Viennese creator of a kind of popular science. He believed that the healing of physical ailments came frmo the manipulation of people's bodily fluids. He thought that "ANIMAL MAGNETISM" was responsible for his patients' recoveries. Mesmer's technique of MESMERISM began to be used by others under the general term hypnotism.
Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)
- Used ideas from physiology and philosophy to create a "science" later termed PHRENOLOGY.
- J. SPURZHEIM carried on Gall's work even though other scientists proved the theory incorrect.
Sir Francis Galton (1822-1882)
- Was an independently wealthy Englishman who traveled extensively and studied various things for fun. As a result, he made important, but random, contributions to psychology.
- Galton was the first to use STATISTICS in psychology, and he created the CORRELATION COEFFICIENT.
- Most notably, he wrote Hereditary Genius and used Darwinian principles to promote EUGENICS.
Gustav Fechner (1801-1887)
- Is credited with the founding of experimental pscyhology because of his work Elements of PSYCHOPHYSICS.
- Fechner had carried out hte first systematic psychology experiment to result in mathematical conclusions. Previously, it was thought that the mind could not be studied empirically.
Johannes Muller (1801-1858)
- Was a German physiologist at the University of Berlin.
- He wrote Elements of Physiology and posulated the existence of SPECIFIC NERVE ENERGIES
- Wilhelm Wundt was a student of Muller.
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
- Wrote Principles of Psychology and became the father of the psychology of adaptation
- He is the FOUNDER OF SOCIOLOGY
- Spencer used principles from Lamarckian evolution, physiology, and associationism to understand people. He asserted that different species or races were elevated because of the greater number of associations that their brains could make.
William James (1842-1910)
- Is often called the FATHER OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
- He was busy doing in America what Wundt was doing in Germany: combining the fields of physiology and philosophy into a new field. Though he was informally investigating psychological principles at Harvard University in the late 1870s, he did not officially have a lab or course dedicated to psychology until the 1880s.
- James' Principles of Psychology inspired American psychology. He wrote about the mind's STREAM OF CONSIOUSNESS and about FUNCTIONALIST ideas that sharply contrasted with structuralist ideas of discrete consious elements.
Wilhelm Wund (1832-1858)
- Is best known as the FOUNDER OF PSYCHOLOGY
- He founded the first official laboratory for psychology at the University of Leipzig in 1879 and began the first psychology journal in 1881.
- He wrote Principles of Physiological Psychology and created a complicated psychology that attempted to study and analyze consiousness. His ideas were the forerunners of Edward Titchener's.
Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
- Was a natural scientist who studied sensation.
- Much of his work with hearing and color vision is the foundation for modern perception research.
- Like Wundt, he studied with Muller.
Stanley Hall
- Was a studnet of James and received America's first Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard.
- He coined the term ADOLESCENCE, started the American Journal of Psychology (1887) and founded the American Psychology Association (APA)
John Dewey (1859-1952)
- Is recognized as one of America's most influential philosophers. He attempted to synthesize philosophy and psychology and is best known in psychology for his work on the REFLEX ARC. Dewey denied that animals respond to their environment through disjointed stimulus and response chains. He asserted instead that animals are constantly adapting to their environment rather than processing isolated stimuli. This work was the foundation for FUNCTIONALISM. Drawn from Darwinian ideas, functionalism examined the adaptive nature of the mind and body through observational methods.
Edward Titchener (1867-1927)
- Taught at Cornell University and was the founder of STRUCTURALISM.
- Structuralism focused on the analysis of human consiousness. Through introspection, lab assistants attempted to objectively describe the discrete sensations and contents of their minds.
- He was an Englishman who studied with Wundt. His method dissolved after his death.
James Cattell (1860-1944)
- Was an American who studied with Hall, Galton and Wundt.
- He opened psychology labs at the University of Pennsylvania and at Columbia.
- He thought that psychology should be more scientific than Wundt did.
Dorthea Lynde Dix
- Spearheaded the nineteenth-century movement to provide better care for the mentally ill through hospitalization.
Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka
- Forged the school of Gestalt psycholgy.
Alfred Adler
- A colleague of Freud, eventually broke with Freud to create his own INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY
- Asserted that people were largely motivated by INFERIORITY.
- Created a four-type theory of personality: Choleric (dominant), phlegmatic (dependent), melancholic (withdrawn), and sanguine (healthy)
Carl Gustav Jung
- Founded ANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGY
- Felt that Freud put too much emphasis on libido or sexual instinct.
- Analytic psychology is best known for its metaphysical and mythological components, such as the collective unconscious and the unconscious archetypes.
- Jung's autobiography Memories, Dreams, Reflections is standard required reading in undergraduate psychology
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
- A swiss psychologist, is a significant figure in developmental psychology.
- His most important work concerned cognitive development in children.
- Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
- Piaget's three classic works are The Language and Thought of the Child, The Moral Judgment of the Child, and The Origins of Intelligence in Children
Clark Hull (1884-1952)
- Secured a place for himself in the history of psychology with his mechanistic behavioral ideas.
- Explained motivation using math: Performance = Drive x Habit
- Kenneth Spence later modified Hull's theory
Edward Tolman (1886-1959)
- Was a behaviorist who uniquely valued both behavior and cognition.
- Asserted that rats in mazes formed COGNITIVE MAPS rather than blindly attempting various routes.
- Created an EXPECTANCY-VALUE THEORY of motivation in which Performance = Expectation x Value
Clinical Psychology
- Emerged after WWII
- People wanted treatment, in addition to information, from psychology
Konrad Lorenz (1903-1992)
- Best known as the FOUNDER OF ETHOLOGY, was famous for his work with imprinting in ducklings.
- He also wrote On Agression
Carl Rogers
- Famous for his CLIENT-CENTERED THERPY
- In Rogerian therpy, the client (not patient) directs the course of therapy and receives unconditional positive regard from the therapist.
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
- Was the leader of humanistic psychology
- Examined normal or optimal functioning as opposed to abnormal functioning.
- Best known for his development of the HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
- Postulaetd eight stages of pscyhosocial development.
- Coined the term IDENTITY CRISIS in naming the key crisis in adolescence.
Aaron Beck (1921-)
- Is the figure most associated with COGNITIVE therapeutic techniques. Problems arise from maladaptive ways of thinking about the world. Thus, cognitive therapy involves reformulating illogical cognitions rather than searching for a life-stress cause for these cognitions.
- Also wrote teh Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) which is widely used to assess the severity of depressive symptoms once a person has already been diagnosed.