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70 Cards in this Set

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The nervous system is comprised of:
1.Neurons
2. Supporting Structures
Neurons are comprised of:
1. Cell bodies
2. Dendrites (carry signal to cell body)
3. Axon (carry signal away from cell body)
Most cells have an electrical gradient accross their membranes, but only two types of cells can depolarize. Which are they?
Muscle cells and neurons
What about certain neurons make their conduction speed faster?
Being myelinated, as they don't need to open as much gated channels because they can jump.
What is the major excitatory NT and how does it work?
Glutamate- attaches on chemically gated channel and allows Na to rush in
What is the major inhibitory NT and how does it work?
GABA acts on GABAa/b channels and allows Cl- to rush in, therefore hyperpolarizing the cell and creating a higher gradient which makes it harder to depolarize.
The nervous system has no stored energy and can no undergo anaerobic metabolism therefore it requires:
1.Glucose
2. Oxygen
What are the two main NT of the peripheral Nervous System?
Ach and NE
WHat are the two main NT of the CNS?
GABA and Glutamate
Why is it important to determine if it is a peripheral or central NS disease?
Because CNS disease usually have poorer prognosis.
What do you called groups of neurons that are bundled together, but are found OUTSIDE the CNS?
nerves
What do you call groups of neurons that are bundled together and are found INSIDE the CNS?
Tracts
What do you call a group of NCBs that are found OUTSIDE the CNS?
Ganglia
What do you call a group of NCBs that are found INSIDE the CNS?
Nuclei
The cerebral cortex can be divided into two parts- what are they?
Grey and White Matter
What is the grey matter comprised of?
NCBs that respond to stimuli in a conscious (voluntary) way.
What is the white matter comprised of?
axons that deliver the signals to the NCBs or transmit signals back to the body
What must the stimuli pass through to get to the cerebral cortex?
ARAS
Ascending Reticular Activating System
When we are asleep, we are technically unconscious- what has happened physiologically to make this occur?
the ARAS has been dampened.
A true seizure must have been initiated where?
Cerebral cortex
If you are presented with a patient that has Ataxia of the head and limbs, what part of the CNS has been affected?
Cerebellum
If you are presented with a patient that has Head Tilt, Circling and Nystagmus, what part of the CNS has been affected?
-Vestibular Nerve or Nucleus
-Part of cerebellum
Describe symptoms of ataxia.
Uncoordination in the limbs AND head/neck

(wide stance, bobbing head when eating, eye lids twitching)
In what animal is pendular nystagmus normal?
Siamese cats
How does pendular nystagmus differ from jerk nystagmus?
There is no fast/short phase
In jerk nystagmus, what phase is always AWAY from the lesion?
Fast phase
What is controlling (telling) the eye to jerk back in jerk nystagmus?
Vestibular apparatus
If a dog was taking very small/careful steps with his back legs, would you call it UMN or LMN?
LMN- True weakness of the muscles.

Diminished reflexes, less use of legs, weaker muscles (flaccid paralysis)
If you saw a dog taking very wide loopy strides with his back hindlimbs, would it be UMN or LMN?
UMN
A dog sitting with his two hindlimbs sticking straight out between his two front limbs is a common position for dogs with UMN or LMN disease?
UMN - spastic paralysis
If a mature dog demonstrates the cross-extensor reflex (pinching one leg and the other extends out), what is this characteristic of? UMN or LMN?
UMN (gets inhibited as dog gets older)
What do segmental spinal reflexes help determine?
They help localize the damage in the spinal cord.
Reflexes can be rated 0-4. What does each number mean?
0-absent
1-diminished
2- normal
3-exaggerated
4- clonus (repetitive)
A normal segmental reflex is the result of both stimulation and _______.
Inhibition
In the normal efferent nerve, GABA in the spinal cord is doing what to it?
Inhibiting it
Describe LMN disease.
When damage to the spinal cord is in the segment where a specific reflex occurs, and the reflex is therefore diminished (hyporeflexic)
Describe UMN disease
When damage to the spinal cord occurs cranial to the spinal cord segment where a specific reflex occurs- the reflex in question will therefore be exaggerated (hyperreflexic) because the inhibitory signals will be lost.
LMN disease can also be described as a problem with any neuron that _______ the CNS.
Leaves
UMN disease can also be described as a problem with any neuron that ________ in the CNS.
Remains
If a patient had spinal cord damage in the region of the brachial plexus, it would have _______ disease in the front limbs and ______ disease in the hindlimb
1. LMN
2. UMN
Define proprioception
The conscious ability to know position in space
Which tract is the easiest to damage?
Proprioceptive tract
What is the second tract that is easiest to damage?
Superficial pain and voluntary motor
What's the hardest tract to damage?
Deep pain
How would you test the deep pain receptors?
Pinch toe with hemostats HARD
Is a dog withdrawing its paw after a pinch definitive of it having pain perception?
NO. it could simply be a withdrawal reflex, which is unconscious. You would need to have a Yelp to ensure that pain perception is actually there.
Why is the proprioception test always done first?
Because its tract is the easiest to damage, so you check that one first to see if it is missing and continue down the list.
Describe the path of conscious proprioception.
Receptors in the joints are stimulated by motion which send signals to the spinal cord, which then transmits it to the cerebellum and then to the cerebral cortex.

The Cerebral cortex sends information back down to the LMN which then corrects any incorrect position.
If damage to the proprioceptive tract occurs, what will this result in?
Ataxia
What is the prognosis for a patient with the lack of deep pain perception?
<10% (VERY POOR)
Define a seizure
sudden, time limited, involuntary alteration in behavior, characterized by alterations in:

1) motor activity
2) consciousness
3) sensation
4) autonomic function (urination/bowel)
Seizures are indicative of damage or issues in what part of the nervous system?
Cerebral Cortex (excluding olfactory lobe) + some degree of basal ganglia (can retrograde)
True epileptic seizures are classified as?
Tonic-Clonic
List the 4 types of seizures
1. Partial (Focal)
2. Partial to generalized
3. Generalized
4. Status
Which type of seizure is life threatening?
Status
What is the 2 main reasons as to why status seizures are life threatening?
Hypoxia/hyperthermia
What defines a status seizure?
A seizure that lasts for more than 15 min. OR it is repeating seizures without coming back to consciousness in between
Define Epilepsy:
A condition that is characterized by recurrent seizures from a non-progressive intracranial cause
How might epilepsy be acquired?
Most often from cranial trauma
If the cause of seizures is congenital, at what age should signs first show up?
1-3years old
Congenital seizures are the highest on the list for what species?
Dogs (btwn 1-3 years old)
What are some infections/inflammatory diseases that may cause seizures in cats?
Toxoplasmosis
FeLV
FIP
cryptococcus
What species/breed are most susceptible to seizures caused by hypoglycemia?
Young Toy breed dogs
What are some infectoins diseases that may cause seizures in dogs?
1)Distemper
2)granulomatous infections meningeoencephalitis
If you have an older dog showing up in your clinic presenting with seizures, what should be at the top of your list?
Have a glucometer!

B cell pancreatic tumor
What might cause osmolality changes which would lead to seizures?
Ethylene Glycol ingestion- causes water to be sucked out of the brain
What is another cause of seizures that should be at hte top of your list for older dogs and cats?
Neoplasia
What are the clinical stagesof Epilepsy?
1. Aura
2. Ictus
3. Post-ictal phase
4. Normal interictal period
What occurs in the Ictus phase?
the actual seizure. Last less than 3 Min
What stage of a seizure is potentially dangerous?
Post-Ictal stage-

aggressive, blindness, confusion, disorentiation