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56 Cards in this Set

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Primates
Members include Lemurs, Lorises, Humans, Apes, Monkey, and Tarisers
Anthropoids
Members of the suborder primates, includes MONKEYS,APES, and HUMANS
Mammalian Traits
-body hair
-long gestation and live birth
-constant body temp
-mammary glands
-increased brain size
-behavioral flexibility
-different types of teeth
Diurnal
Active during the day
Olfaction
The sense of smell
Noctural
Active during the night
Stereoscopic Vision
Condition where visual images are superimposed. Allows depth perception bc it facilitates 3D sight.
Binocular Vision
Vision is characterized by overlapping visual fields provided by forward-facing eyes.
Neocortex
Evolved portions of the cortex of the brain that are involved in higher mental functions, integrates incoming information from different sensory organs.
Limbs & Locomotion (Primates)
- Erect Posture
- Tactile Pads
- Nails instead of Claws
- Opposable Thumb
- Retention of 5 digits
-Flexible Limb Structure
Diet and Teeth ( Primates)
- Lack of Specialization (Omnivorous)
- Generalized Dentiton
Depth Perception ( Primates)
- Color Vision
- Binocular and Stereoscopic vision
- Visual information is transferred to both hemispheres
Olfaction ( Primates)
- Decreased reliance on olfaction
- Decreased size of the snout
Maturation (Primates)
- More efficient means of nourishment
- Delayed maturation
- Longer periods of gestation
- Reduced Offspring
- Extension of lifetime
Arboreal
Tree-living, adapted to life in the trees.
Adaptive Niche
An organisms way of life, where is live,what it eats, and how it avoids predators.
Dental Formula ( Old World)
2123
Dental Formula
incisors,canines,premolars, molars. Number of each tooth that typifies each species.
Dental Formula ( New World)
1233
Dental Formula ( Mammal)
3143
Quadrupedal
Using all four limbs to support the body during locomotion, basic for for mammalian and primates.
Brachiation
Arm swinging, form of locomotion for primates.
Lumbar
Pertaining to the lower back
Strepsirhini
Suborder that includes LEMURS and LORISES
Haplorhini
Suborder that includes Tarsiers, Humans, Apes, and Monkeys
Rhinarium
LEMURS and LORISES. Moist fleshy pad at the end of the snout.
Dental Comb
LEMURS AND LORISES. Projecting lower incisors and canines.
Anthropoid Traits
- Increased body size
- Increased reliance on vision
- Eye protected by bony plate
- Fusion of the mandible
Ischial Callosities
Patches of tough, hard skin on the buttocks of Old World Monkeys and Chimpanzees
Cecropithecidae
The family that old world monkeys are placed. Includes the suborders ceropithecines and colobines.
Estrus
A hormonally initiated period of sexual receptivity in non-human female mammals correlated with ovulation. Swelling and redness are symptoms.
Colobines
Old World Monkeys that include Asian Langurs and African Colobus Monkeys. They are leaf-eating monkeys.
Cercopithecines
Old World Monkeys that include Baboons, Guenons, and Macaques.
Hominoids
Members of the primate superfamily that include: APES and HUMANS.
Hominoids Traits
- Shortened Trunk
- No Tail
- Arms longer than legs
- Shoulder joint
PITHECIDAE (3)
Saki, Uakari, Titi
CEBIDAE (4)
Owl, Marmoset, Squirrel, Capuchins
ATELIDAE (3)
Howler, Spider, Muriqui
HYLOBATIDAE (2)
Siamiangs and Gibbons
BONOBOS
Pan Paniscus
PONGO PYGMAEUS
Orangutan
Lemurs are only found in ____
Madagascar
Rhinarium is characteristic of the _____ suborder.
Strepsirhini
Lemurs and Lorises have an increased reliance on their ____ sense
Olfactory
APES (3)
Gorillas, Orangutans, Chimpanzees
The common form of locomotion for Tarsiers and Lemurs
Vertical Climbing and Leaping
Angiosperm Radiation Theory
The argument suggests that visual predation isnt that common among modern primates. Forward facing eyes ,grasping hands, omnivory, and color vison have arisen in response to the demand for visual and tactile discrimination.
Visual Predation Theory
Already arboreal animals did not possess primate-like adaptions. But visual predators already had forward facing eyes; such as, owls and cats. Grasping hands, and nails instead of claws so primates may ave adapted to their ground enviorns. first.
New World Monkey Characteristics (5)
- Found in S. Mexico, C. America, and S. America
- Outward facing noses
-Grasping Tail
-DF 2.1.3.3.
-Ringlike earhole
Old World Monkeys Characteristics (5)
- Downward facing nostrils
- DF 2.1.2.3
- Africa, S. Asia, and Japan
-Tubelike earhole
- Ischial Callosities
Arboreal Hypothesis
After primates find their adaptive niche in te trees tey begin to take advantage of the food source. (leaves, nuts, seeds, fruits, insects) This facilitated te generalized dentition , increased reliance in vision and grasping hands and feet.
PRIMATES (6)
Apes, Humans, Monkeys, Lemurs, Tarsiers, Lorises
NOCTURNAL PRIMATES (4)
Tarsiers, Lorises, some Lemurs, and one monkey
species
Best diagnostic characteristics of a primate skull:
Postorbital bar and Auditory Bulla
Primates have expansion in the ___ and ___ areas of the brain.
Sensory modalities and the Neocortex
Stereoscopic Vision is provided by: (3)
1) Binocular vision/forward-facing eyes
2) Visual information is transmitted to both sides of the brain
3) Visual information organized by specialized structures into three dimensions.