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134 Cards in this Set

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- number of diferent bands (which are made up of several one males units) where food is particularly plentiful
Mating in a one male unit
- all mating happens here

- males from other uni-male units don't mate with females form other ones
Genetic drift
- fundamental tendency of any allele to vary randomly in frequency over time due to statistical variation alone
ransfer of alleles of genes from one population to another
group of individuals that share a common gene pool
- groups of actually or ptentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
How New species arise
- original species--> two populations become isolated from one another--> evolution causes reproductive isolation betweent he two populations--> new species that cannot produce viable offspring with original species occurs
- Pattern of ancestor-descendent realtionships

- on a "tree"

- evolutionary hist. of all life on earth

-idea of common descent: everyone descended from one life form

- closer species are on tree closer are related to one another
- Pattern of what?

- on a what?

-history of what?

- main idea it is based on?

- closer species are what?
Cladistics and Cladistic analysis
- method of analysis that allows one to understand phylogeny and idea of common decent

- takes individual traits of species to figure out how to distinguish between species and ho they are related and their relatedness to other species
- definition

- how it is applied/ used
- named groups or categories species are put in based on their relatedness

- goal: monophyletic--> group organisms share common ancestor including all of ancestor's group members

- study of evolution of social behavior in ecological context

- social behavior determined by evolutionary mechanisms (natural selection etc.)
two definitons
Primate societies characteristics
- not random

-cohesive groups based on sex, age and kinship

-Intrinsic social rules which limit conflict in social group
- not what?

-what kind of groups?

-what kind of rules?
-Atrributing humanlike characteristics to non-humanlike animals

- not based on what one observes
- def

- not based on what?
-Attributing animal characteristics to human behavior
- studying primates within the context of their ecological environment
Uni-Male groups
- groups with one dominant adult male who has a mating monopoly with several adult females

- groups includes male, females and offspring
- multiple uni-male groups that traveland forage together
- number of different bands where food particularly plentiful
Bacehlor groups
- all males that travel and live together
- usually grow up and become leaders of one male unit
- constantly harassa and try to overthrow leaders of one male units
-who travels with whom?
- what do they become?
- what do they do/
Female dominance hierarchies
- w/in female part of band
- females compete for sexual access to one male
-females form coolitions to highten their power and possible sucess at getting with the male
-coolitions usually based on kinship
-female agression keeps bands together
-males usually don't physically fight b/c confrontatios deadly
-within what part of band
-who competes for what?
- what do they form?
- what are these formations composed of? (who)
-what keeps groups together?
-why don't males fight?
4 Main groups of Primates
-Platyrrhines (New world monkeys)
-Cercopithecoids (Old World monkeys)
- Primitive Primates b/c retain many ancestral primate traits (catlike nose, whiskers)
-Habitats: various parts Africa, Asia and Madagascar
-Some types: Lemurs, Bushbabies, Tarsiers, Laras
-Restricted geographic range because like warm wet weather
-mostly nocturnal like ancestral primates
-abhoreal (tree living)
-like ancestral primates mostly use scent for foraging and communication
-physically smallest primates
-what kind of primates are they normal traits
-Geographically where they live?
-example types
-what kind of habitats do they like? what does that do for them?
-mostly daylight or nighttime animals?
-what do they live in?
-how do they forage and communicate?
- new world monkeys
-only central and south american
-mostly diurnal
-one genus nocturnal: Aotus --> nocturnality suggests ancestor diurnal
-Geographic regions: Tropical
-All Abhoreal occasionally come to ground to forage
-no direct competition b/c multiple species live togehter using diff resources
-prehensile tails: w/underside that has marks like fingerprints
-if no prehinsile tails (dependig on locomotion) run on tree tops
-geographic locations
-one special genus diff from the rest
-live in what type of habitat,tundra, tropical etc.
-Live in what? what do they occaisonally do?
-what type of resource competition?
-specific traits? (tail types)
- old world monkeys
-african and asia
-phylogenetically more closely related to apes and chimps than monkeys
-largest geographic range of environments can and do live in
-most teresstrial primate group
-live where?
-who more closely related to phylogenetically?
-largest what?
-most what primate group?
- Lesser Apes: Gibbons
-Great Apes: Gorillas, bonobo, orangutans, chimps
-only live in Tropical Forrests--> very restricted geographic range
-Two categoris?
-Geographic range?
-live what types of environments?
In comparisson to other mammals how social are primates?
-Highly social in comparisson to other mammals
-all primates social-->members of same species interat with each other on regular basis
spacial proximity in groups
-members of same group spend more time in close proximity to each other than members of other groups
-home range
-groups restrict selves to this particular area
-can overlap with territories of other groups of diff species
-most ranges don't overlap wth groups of same species
-what is it?
-what do groups do in this area?
-how does this relate to territories of groups of other species?
-how does this related to territories of grops of the same species?
Aggregation (in relation to social groups)
-groups semi-permanent
-primates don't always end up living in groups they were born in
-male or female dispersal at sexual maturity
-members of same group spend majority of lives in one group
- how stable are the groups?
- Do primates always live in their natal groups?
-what happens at sexual maturity?
-Do groups members often change or do they stay the same from birth?
Behavioral drit (in relation to social groups)
-members of same group treat eachother differently than they treat members of a different group
-territoriality: species w/in same group less aggressive towards each oter than individuals of same species of other groups
-coordination in behavior of group members (actions and responses)
-cooperaton/division of labor--> social structure based on demographics in group-->juveniles act diff than adults
-how do group members treat eachother and how do they treat members from other groups?
-what behavior do they exhibit in regards to their ranges?
-what can correlate in group members?
-how do they get anything done?
-who acts diff from whom?
Social Organization
-Defined by four main behavioral patterns
- Mating
-Social structure
- defined by what four behavioral patterns?
Grouping patterns
- multi male/ multi female
- unimale/multi female
-dispersed sociality
-5 types
Multi-male/Multi-female groups
-composed of multi-males and females w/dependent offspring
-common among monkeys
-made up of?
-common among what group?
uni male/ multi female
-"harem groups"
-adult male mates w/all adult females in group
-formation of bachelor groups: groups of outside males
-age-graded groups: when male offspring reach sexual maturity kicked out and join bachelor groups until they become uni-male groups leaders themselves
-who with who
-formation of what other groups?
-what happens with sexually mature male offspring?
Dispersed sociality
- "solitary"
-solitary but social
- females and dependent offsprig w/homerange
-lone males with homeranges that overlap several female's homeranges but don't overlap other male's ranges
-more dominant males larger ranges that overlap more female's ranges
-what is it?
-what composed of?
-what are ranges like? overlap etc.
-more dominant the male the more what?
Two Adult groups
-"monogamous" but not really
-adult male + adult female + dependent offspring
-"pair bond"--> male and female spend most of lives together
-home ranges don't overlap with homeranges of other groups
-supposedly what?
-composed of whom?
-what type of bond? what does the type of bond mean?
-home ranges specifics?
Uni female/ multi male groups
-one adult female mates with all the males in the group (there can be other females in the group who just don't mate)
-if other females, dominant female hinders their mating with hormones that prevent subordinate female from mating
-who with who?
-can there be two females?
-what happens if there is a second female reproductive wise?
Fisson fusion societies in Chimpanzees
-variant of multi male/multi female groups
- males and females in larger community with dependent offspring
-when foraging split up into smaller temporary groups-->females forage with offspring, males forage with eachother
-variant of what type of group?
-who in group?
-when do they split up and what do they split up into?
-for what purposes do they split up?
Mating Patterns
-four types
-two adult groups--> one male mates with one female whom he is bonded with (in theory)
- in reality not monogamous b/c sometimes will female or male with mate with a different female or male
-what is in theory?
-who exhibits this?
-what is in reality?
-single female mates with several males
-uni female /multi male groups
-multiple males and females all mating with eachother
-multi male/ multi female groups
-who with who?
-one male mates with several females
-seen in orangutangs and uni-male groups
-who with whom?
-seen in who? (2 examples)
Dispersal Patterns
-propensity for individual to leave natal group so no inbreeding and no genetic problems occur
- Male dispersal: males leave the natal group, females are philopatric
- Female dispersal:females disperse, males philopatric
-Both sexes disperse
- three types
Social Structure
-how individuals in groups relate to each other and what strategies they use to meet their own goals (survival and reproduction)
-diff. roles in group: individuals behave diff. and hold diff. roles in group
- pwr : based on idividual power
-what does each individual have in the group?
-what decides the role an individual plays in the group?
Power in social groups
-indentifies what social role one plays in one's group
-based on individual pwr
-pwr distinguished by:two things
-dominance: fighting ability in conflicts in group (gauged fighting ability)-->depends on size and strength of individual-->individual who wins the most fights etc. is most dominant individual
-Leverage: possessing resources that others want --> Ex. Females ability to mate, cna choose who they mate with
-what does it decide?
-based on what?
- distinguished by what two things and how are these two things decided/ shown/
Neopotism (in relation to pwr)
-individuals tend to choose to interact with mostly thier kin
-based on which sex disperses
-who interacts with whom?
-what does it depend on?
individualistic pwr
-Individuals have pwr to choose who they interact with in the group, who they ally themselves with
-depends on which sex disperses
-depends on what?
Dominance Hierarchies
-based on aggressive encounters: most aggressive or most seemingly physically capable individual dominant over others
-formalizes who in charge so time not wasted on bickering for supremacy
-not all groups clear dominance hierarchies
-mostly involves ritualized confrontation with no actual confrontation b/c actual physical confrontation dangerous
-based on what?
-formalizes what and why?
-not all groups have what?
-mostly involves what type of fighting/confrontation?
Despotic society
-assymetry of pwr-->linear line of pwr (alpha, beta)
Egalitarian society
-non-linear line of pwr
-more dominant individuals and more subordinate individuals but no clear hierarchy in group
-what type of pwr?
-more what and more what individuals?
Submissive behaviors in societies
-Formalize knowledge of dominance hierarchies
-teeth baring
-dominant individuals take over beta individuals spots
-grooming (more time spent on most dominant individuals)
-what do these do?
-3 examples
Matri-lines in Female Philoparty
- mother and female offspring matri lines of dominance
-ranking of family groups--> female offspring inherit mother's rank in social order
-coalition pwr possible b/c is a coalition of pwr with related females against other matri-lines
-youngest female born to highest ranking female in family has the highest rank besides the mother
-who involved?
-ranking of what? Who inherits what?
-what type of power is possible?
-who has the highest rank besides the matriarch?
Benefits of group living
-Reduced Predation risk
-Access to food
-Raising and Protecting offspring
-finding mates
Four main benefits
Reduced Predation risk in group living
-Predators less likely to be able to be successful if prey in a group
Predators less likely to what?
Who are the Predators of Primates?
-large carnivorous mammals: lions etc.
-Birds of Prey: Raptors, Eagles, Owls
-Smaller carnivorous Mammals
Three main groupings
Four reasons why there is a reduced Predation risk in group living:
-vigilance: more animals,more eyes and ears to see predators or send out warnings
-Mobbing: animals form groups and attack predator--> try to scare it off
-Probablity: larger group number means less likely a particular individual will get eaten b/c many to choose from
-Knowledge: diff. individuals diff. knowledge of predators and predators' behaviors
Access to Food and why in groups there is better access
- knowledge;collective knowledge of food sources and where they are
- cooperative defense of food areas; groups can defend larger and better resources than an individual can
Raising and protecting offspring is better in groups (2 reasons)
- allo parenting: babies raised/reared by adults other than parents
-reduces reproductive energy costs on females
Finding Mates in groups is easier (3 reasons)
-easier to find potential mates in a group b/c
1) don't have to travel as far to look
2)more choice b/c more individuals in close proximity
3) safer b/c individuals don't have to make loud vocalizations or whatever they do to attract a mate that would attract preadatory attention to them
Cost of group living
- Time budgets and time constraints
-Intra-group competition
-Ritualized fighting and dominance hierarchies
Individuals are on Time Budgets and sometimes group living hinders this
-Individuals have to travel, find food, and rest then if have time can engage in social behavior --> Individual energy requirements
-as group size increases individuals must travel farther with group to get what they need in terms of food

-food and the individual
-RRC = size / time
-larger group more time and travel to forage for food
Intra-group competition
-limited resources-->potential for competition
-if group size grows and resources stay the same-->increaded competition
-limted what means?
-bigger group size?
Scramble competition
-first come first serve: no direct competition but in a race to fine food and mates
-deals with reality of competition in a way less costly to the individual
-what means?
-deals with?
Contest competition
-aggressive interactions/ confrontations over resources
-cost of living in a group
-energetically expensive
-hurts everyone-->reduces cohesiveness of group
-possibly deadly
-what doe it have to do with group?
-how is it expensive?
-who does it hut and why?
-what is it?
Cohesion mechanisms:
behavaiors that evolve in individuals to increase cohesiveness in groups
-ritualized fighting
-dominane hierarchies
what are they?

five different kinds?
genetic make up/genome of individual can refer also to individual traits of individual
physical expression of the individuals genotype as it correlates with the environment
Developmental plasticity
how genotypeis specifically expressed in phenotype in response to the environment
Darwin + Wallace
-minds behind natural selection
-came up with same idea seperately
-Darwin went more into depth
-three things
Intrinsic property of individuals reproduction in environ context
-animals tend to produce more offspring than environ. cna contain
What about phenotypic variation?
-variable b/c advantages to individuals to exploiting diff. resources
differential exploitation of resources
might allow individuas to be more sucessful at exploiting resources which means they are more likely to survive and reproduce
Relative Fitness
-diff repro success
-fitness nothing more than how many kids have and getting you genetics to live on into the next genereation
phenotypes that enhance the reproductive success ofindividuals in a specific environment
where does phenotypic variation come from?
-Genetic Mutation
-Genetic Drift (Bottleneck effect)
Genetic Mutation
-insertion mutation: additional amino acid added in gentic sequence-->protein takes on diff. shape then before-->might change phenotype
-most mutations little or no effect on fitness of individual
-non-functional mutation: occur in areas of the genome that are non-coding and non-functional
-Mutations rare
-Functional Mutation: affe coding area of genome-->if beneficial can actually effect group
-what type of mutation?
-most mutations what?
-what type of mutation occurs where?
Genetic Drift: (bottle neck effect)
-during evolution of population all of a sudden population size tiny-->change in frequency of phenotypes-->allows some mutations to become fixed in species even if not adaptations
-sometimes extremely beneficial traits can disappear due to this
-dispersal patterns effect exchange of genes in populations
-dispersal meant to avoid inbreeding
-keeps cohesiveness of species so natural selection an dadaptive traits don't make ppulatons of a species ito sepearate species
From Mutation-->Adaptation
-occur in functinal portion of genome
-must have benefit to fitness
-large poulation type:if population in bottleneck could risk loss of benericial genotype
-geneflow for it to spread throughout species
-Not all traits adaptable all the time
Altruistic behaviors
-behaviors that benefit the recipeint at a cost to the actor
Primates exhibit altruistic behaviors
- alarm calls
Are altruistic behaviors ultimately always altruistic?
-no sometimes something that may seem altruistic actually is not
Explanations for development of Altruistic behavior:
-groups more altruistic individuals greater fitness than groups more selfish individuals--> in reference to natural selection doesn't work because more selfish individuals through natural selection would swamp out altruists
-theory and why doesn't work in reality
Kin selection
-natural selection favors behaviors that help kin at the cost of individuals
-inclusive fitness: individual fitness+ relative's fitness-->individuals fitness can be increased by relative's fitness
-reduced individual fitness shown in altruism actually aid inclusive fitness
what does natural selection favor?
-what is inclusive fitness?
-what aids in inclusive fitness?
Hamiltons rule
-degree of relatedness
-benefits of helping kin have to outweigh teh costs ot the individual as a proportion of relatedness
degree of what?
-benefits to whom what?
Kin Recognition
-kin selection based on idea that individuals can recognize kin,a nd almost impossible to distinguish between familiarity and kin recognition
-visual and factoral ques aid in recognition
Factoral ques
-pherenmones can identify individuals
Reciprocal Altruism
-cooperation altruistic behavior on behalf of non-kin
-you scratch my back I'll scratch yours
Game Theory: Prisnoner's dilemma
-two individuals in trouble and being quesitoned sperately two potions 1) keep silence, deny it all, 2) rat out partner
-Tit for tat for both good and bad things
Minimum Threshhold coooperation
-cooperation not al or nothing deal there is a threshhold to cooperation
Biological Market Theory
-altruistic services (groominc etc.) are commodities:
more highly ranked individuals get a lot of grooming
individuals about the same in rank spend similar amount of time in grooming
lowly ranked individuals get groomed the least
-social hierarchy and how relates to grooming
Sexual Dimorphism
-significant diff. in size of males and females of species despite fact that they respond to the same environmental constraints
-if mates considered resources these traits for competition over mates
Competition over mates 3 forms
-Male competition: contest competition among males
-Female choice: females choose among competitors
-Potential for male coercion: b/c bigger and stronger males can cooerce females into mating with them: coercion b/c even though males use physical force females don't physically resist
Parental investment theory
-offspring can be costly
-males and females have different approaches to reproduction--> ultimately female larger investment of spending time on young
Female reproductive approach
-quality over quantity
-she has to use her energy to bear, feed, and rear young and has limited amount of sex cells therefore she has more of a reason to be selective about who she mates with

Male reproductive approach
-quantity over quality
-mate with as many females as possible to produce largest amount of offspring
-monopolize females in group for mating better
-high variation among male repro sucess with in groups b/c male dominance hierarchies are such that sometimes males don't ever mate
Reproductive skew
-how many offspring sired
-high degree in variants of who mates among males-->can lead to seuxal selection and prevalence of sexually dimorphic traits
monopolization potential
-depends on sexual ratio --> more females more difficult for male to monopolize mating
-each male under strong pressure to monopolize females
-effected by: sex ratio, estrous synchrony and breeding seasonality
-depends on what?
-each male under strong pressure for what?
-effected by three things
What does sexual selection favor in terms of monopolixation potential?
-traits that allow males to monopolize females
Relative Testes size
-form of scramble competition
-bigger balls more sperm can be produced and therefore more likely to mean your sperm fertilize the egg
Levels of sexual dimorphism
-polyandrous and monogamous groups very little sexual dimorphism--> all males in population have chance to mate-->no male more potential to mate than othe male because only one female
-uni-male multi-female groups highest level sexual dimorphism b/c males compete with eachother over females, high repro skew b/c one male mating with all females
-multi-male multi-female: moderate repro skew, indirect sexual competition (testes size)
Sesonal breeding
-even if male has mating monopoly in group in this situation he can only mate with all the females once a year
-hard for him to keep track of all females at once so females can wander off and mate with other males
Females tend to favor males who?
(female selection)
-good genes
-protect them against female competitors
-exhibit interest in aiding with offspring
-sometimes reinforce male competition b/c good genes that females favor usually expressed by sexually dimorphic phenotypes
Food and Females
-energetic costs of gestation, lactation, and caring for young expensive
-females best at exploiting resources favored by evolution
and natural selection in the long run b/c focus me on nutrition
- what is expensive?
-who does natural selection and evolution favor?
Females who focus more on resources and good nutrition
-mature faster so can start having babies sooner
-healthier offspring b/c nutrition of mother correlates with nutrition of offspring
-better nutrition shorter intervals between birth of offspring
-females who eat better live longer and ultimaely more fit because have potential to produce more offspring
4 things
Variants on repro. success within group based upon nutrition
-higher variants in repro. success if resources limited
-lower variants in repro. success if resources unlimited or large
Mating competition
-in group phenomenon
-competition for mate: males for females and females for food
Feeding competition:
-groups of one species compete with other groups of same species for food
-causes of within group competition over this:
1) food quality (better quality food more nutritious: more protein, more energy)
2) Spatial distribution: dif competition arises depending on spatial distribution of food
-more about quality food items because harder to find
What are the consequences of the spatial distribution of food on females?
-changes how females interact
-influences formation of either, egalitarian, nepotistic, despotic or individualitic societies
Primate diets
-focus mainly on fruit
-types: folivores, insectiores, frugivores (they are these depending on what the main components of their diets are)
-Fruits give most energy etc.--> but not easy to find so primates suplimetn diet with insects or leaves
food patch size variability
Patch density
how densly food pathed distributed in home range
What effects social structure and the grouping patterns of females?
-abundancy of food
dispersal patterns and how they affect female interactions in social context
-female philopatry --> dominance hierarchies
types of female philopatry
-Matrilineal rank "inheritance" : born into position of dominance hierarchy, inherit ran of mother, very stable
-Age related rank; individual females rank due to her age and fitness due to her age
Matralineal dominance hierarchies
-occur: species with female philopatry and clumped variable resources
-high leverage: leverage of both dominant relatives and advantages that come with that
-female philopatry
-females philopatric matralineal societes form bonds with males of low rank when he 1) aid her in confrontations, 2) shows an interest in child care and
In male dispersal pattern how do males get incorporated into new groups?
-beat resident male
-shows good male and females let him in to matrilineal dominance societies with female philopatry
Age related rank:
-occurs old world monkey
-individual females rank due to her age and her fitness due to her age
-all females eventually gain and lose thier rank
-uniform distribution of food patches
-no philopatry b/c food patches only big enought to sustain one female
-low leverage: no coalitions
-no consortship with low ranking males because females have no relatives usually so need leverage of high ranking male to help her out
consortship with low ranking males?
Female dispersal
-females leave because of lack of repro opportunities in current group
-resources: hyper abundant to group size, no contest competition, egalitarian individualistic
-females more subject to male coercion b/c have no relatives to support them
-potentially dangerous to females; increased predation, possible lack of food, possible agression from other females in new groups
-why do females disperse?
-what type of resources and what develops in the society due to the resource distribution?
-females are more subject to what and whhy?
-possibly dangerous to females b/c ; 3 things
What do males tend to risk more on over females and why? What are male resources for survival in comparisson to females?
-males risk more for mating opportunities because all they need to do is survive and mate, they don't have to worry about raising the offspring
-males resources for survival mostly females while females resource for survival mostly food
Male stress causes
-challenges lower ranking males
-male monopilation potential dependent on dominance
-if dominant male: keeping track of his females
-group size pressures
Male monopolization potential
two ways to do so
-group size; larger group size and larger estrous synchrony make it harder for male to monopolize b/c harder to keep track of individual females, smaller groups size and no estrous synchrony easier for male to monopolize individual females
-estrous synchrony: females all go into estrous at same time-->depending on if species or group has this male's monopolization goes up or down, estrous synchrony goes down, no estrous synchrony potential goes up
What is Asynchrony and what does it promote?
- asynchrony means lack of correlation in female estrous cycles: no breeding seasonality
-promotes formation of dominance hierarchies among males to get access to females
Cooperation among related males
two types
-male philopatry
-age-graded group (gorillas):father's tolerate sons presence in groups even after they reach sexual maturity
Male dispersal with kin or without kin
- brothers or related kin disperse with each other to join new group
-dominance hierarchies with no rank inheritance b/c males unrelated
-coalitions important b/c if no kin then need othe rmales as allies
-higher rates of affiliation among males
-males don't care if they are related in terms of fighting for rank
-who disperses with whom?
-what type of dominance hierarchies, and why?
-higher rates of what among males?
-males don't care if they fight who for rank?
-toleration of sexually mature son in group
-Sons don't :reproduce, no coalition support, don't have contact with father: try to stay out of his way
-father dominant son subordinate
-females focus on dominant male no interaction with son of male
-son interacs with juveniles and aids with offspring
-advantage to son is that he can inherit leadership of group if he stays and maybe weren't enough bachelor males in area to form bachelor group
-toleration of whom in group?
- sons don't ? 3 things
-who's dominant who's subordinate?
-who do females focus on?
-who does the son interact with?
-advantages to son (2)
Cooperation among unrelated in case of male dispersal
-multimale multifemale groups
-unstable coalitions
-low between group competition over females because might be going against own kin
-high intragroup competition over females
when unrelated males cooperate what hierarchies develop?
what are they based on?
-dominace hierarchies based on age (in relatino to size and fighting ability), tenure in group, support (longer in group more support to be had in group)
when unrelated males cooperate who do the coalitions tend to be among? why?
-mid ranking males b/c higher ranking males already have pwr
and lower ranking males are usually new members to the group who haven't esablished relationships
What do unrelated male coalition partners do to retain the coalition?
-ritualized acts to confirm partnership: grooming, submissive behaviors to each other