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46 Cards in this Set

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What is the underlying goal of medical prevention?
Interventions in General Practice, both opportunistic and systematic, with the goal of promoting health and preventing illness, in individuals and populations.
What is primary prevention?
Direct prevention of disease or disorder from occurring in individuals or populations.
What is secondary prevention?
Prevention of disease progression by the detection of early, asymptomatic stages of the disease.
What is tertiary prevention?
Minimisation of disability with established disease.
Chronic illness is what percentage of GP's work?
50%.
What is the definition of prevention?
In the context of general practice, a preventative approach incorporates the prevention of illness, injury and disease, reduction in the burden of illness, and rehabilitation of those with a chronic illness. It recognises the cultural, social and political determinants of health. It is achieved through the organised and systematic responses to improve, protect and restore the health of populations and individuals. It includes both opportunistic and planned interventions in general practice.
What does SNAP stand for?
Smoking
Nutrition
Alcohol and Drugs
Physical activity
What are the 5 'A's in lifestyle intervention?
Ask - Do you? How much?

Assess - concerns, interests, barriers.

Advise - Brief, personalised.

Assist - Support, information sheets.

Arrange - follow-up.
What is Level 1 Evidence?
Evidence obtained from a systematic review of all relevant randomised controlled trials.
What is Level 2 Evidence?
Evidence obtained from at least one properly designed randomised controlled trial.
What is Level 3 Evidence?
Evidence obtained from any of the following:
- Well designed pseudo randomised controlled trial (alternate allocation or some other method).
- Comparative studies with concurrent controls and allocation not randomised (cohort studies).
- Case control studies, or interrupted time series with a control group.
- Comparative studies with historical control, two or more single arm studies, or interrupted time series without a parallel control group.
What is Level 4 Evidence?
Evidence obtained from case series, either post-test or pre-test and post test.
What is Level 5 Evidence?
Opinions of respected authorities, based on clinical experience, descriptive studies or reports of expert committees.
Type A - What is the Strength of Recommendation?
There is good evidence to support the recommendation.
Type B - What is the Strength of Recommendation?
There is fair evidence to support the recommendation.
Type C - What is the Strength of Recommendation?
There is poor evidence regarding the inclusion or exclusion of the recommendation but recommendations may be made on other grounds.
Type D - What is the Strength of Recommendation?
There is fair evidence against the recommendation.
Type E - What is the Strength of Recommendation?
There is good evidence against the recommendation.
What are the strategies for motivational interviewing?
- Patient centred.
- Explore their likes about the habit.
- Then explore their dislikes.
- Let them decide how much of a problem they have.
- Find out how strong their will to change is.
- What do they see as benefits and harms of change.
What is the recommended intake of alcohol for males?
6 drinks or less a day, with at least 2 alcohol-free days a week.
What is the recommended intake of alcohol for females?
4 drinks or less a day, with at least 2 alcohol-free days a week.
What are the qualities of an effective screening program?
- Screens for an important/common/severe conditions.
- Has a recognisable, latent or early asymptomatic stage of which the natural history is understood.
- Uses a test which is simple, safe, precise, validated and acceptable to the target population.
- Ensure that treatment is available and effective.
- Can demonstrate evidence that the benefits of screening outweigh the harms.
- Cost an appropriate amount in relation to overall health care expenditure.
- Reach those 'high risk' individuals most in need of them.
What are the Stages of Change model for behavioural risk factors?
- Precontemplation.
- Contemplation.
- Determination.
- Action.
- Maintenance/Relapse.
What preventative actions need to be taken for a 6 week old child?
Neonatal screening.

Examination:
- Cardiac.
- Hips.
- Genitalia.
- Weight/growth.
- Red reflex.

SIDS risk reduction.

Immunisation schedule.
What preventative actions need to be taken for a 15 year old girl?
- Scoliosis screening? IV D.
- Reinforce school curriculum advice.
- HEADSS (effectiveness of interventions?)
- Chlamydia screening.
- Boostrix.
- Gardasil.
What preventative actions need to be taken for a fifty year old man?
- SNAP.
- Vascular risk factors.
- Cancer screening.
- Immunisations.
What preventative measures can be used to help a patient quit smoking?
- Buproprion.
- Nicotine replacement therapy.
- Quitline.
What percentage of suicides involve alcohol?
10% of suicides.
What percentage of motor vehicle accidents involve alcohol?
30%.
What percentage of assaults involve alcohol?
50%.
How many grams of alcohol are found in a single standard drink?
10g.
What are the main non-modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
- Age.
- Sex.
- Family history.
- ATSI.
What are the main modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
- Blood pressure.
- Cholesterol.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Kidney disease.
- SNAP.
- Atrial fibrillation.
- Depression.
What are the recommended guidelines for cancer screening of a 50 year old male?
- Skin cancer - yearly skin check (>30 years of age if high risk)
- Colorectal cancer - FOBT 2 yearly from 50 years, 5 yearly colonoscopy if increased risk.
- Prostate cancer.
What prevention tasks should be done for an 80 year old woman?
- Immunisation.
- Screening and intervention for risk of falling.
- Driving.
- Vision.
- Hearing.
- Dementia.
- Depression.
- Osteoporosis.
- Polypharmacy.
80% of all vision loss is due to what causes in an 80 year old woman?
- Age related macular degeneration.
- Cataracts.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Glaucoma.
- Refractive error.
How frequently should breast cancer screening be done?
Every 2 years.
Start at 40 years for high risk.
How frequently should cervical cancer screening be done?
Every 2 years.

Repeat at 12 months with PAP result.
What vaccination is to be given at birth?
Hepatitis B.
What vaccinations are to be given at 2 months?
- DTP.
- IPV
- Hep B, Hib.
- Pneumococcal.
What vaccinations are to be given at 4 months?
- DTP.
- IPV.
- Hep B, Hib.
- Pneumococcal.
What vaccinations are to be given at 6 months?
- DTP, Hep B.
- IPV.
- Hib.
- Pneumococcal.
What vaccinations are to be given at 1 year?
- Hep B, Hib.
- MMR.
- Meningococcal C.
What vaccinations are to be given at 18 months?
- VZV.
- Pneumococcal (PPV).
What vaccinations are to be given at 4 years?
MMR.
DTP.
IPV (polio.
What vaccinations are to be given at 10-13 years?
Hepatitis B
VZV.