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14 Cards in this Set

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What is papyrus?
An early material for recording information. It was made from the leaves of the papyrus plant and used in Egypt in 300 B.C.
What is parchment and when did it come into use?
Parchment is made from the skins of animals, and comes into use in the 2nd C. B.C.E..
At what point in history did parchment gain "complete ascendancy" over papyrus?
By the first half of the 4th C. A.D. it had become apparent that papyrus was unsuitable for the book format.
What Spanish invention in the 12th C. resulted in smoother and thinner paper?
The stamping-mill.
Where was paper invented and when?
Paper was invented in China, and the oldest piece of paper that has been discovered to date is from 300 B.C.E.
When did paper-making enter into the European sphere?
Paper-making entered the European sphere through Islamic culture and Spain around 750 A.D.
What is paper made from?
Paper is made from natural fibers called cellulose.
Who is responsible for the introduction of wood pulp into the paper-making process and when did this innovation come about?
In 1800, Mathias Koops received the first patent for making paper out of wood pulp.
When did the paper-making process become mechanized?
Early in the 19th C., and by 1820-1830 most paper is made by machine.
What is foxing?
Stains, blotches found in paper. In some cases it may be rust caused by the mechanized process.
What's a good website to consult for terminology relating to bookbinding and the conservation of books?
http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/don/don.html
What is a sheet of paper?
A thin mat of tangled cellulose fibers.
What is lignin and what makes it undesirable in archival paper?
It's a glue binding together the cellulose fibers of a living plant. It's up to 30% of the bulk of wood pulp. It becomes more acidic and turns yellow with age.
What holds paper together?
As water in the cellulose fibers evaporates, the fibers shrink along their length and form hydrogen bonds where they contact other fibers.